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U N I T ± 46 4 Past Perfect   and Past Perfect Progressive Nature vs. Nurture 1 Grammar in the Real World  A±± Have you ever reconnected with someone from your past? Read the web article about twins who lived apart for many years. What surprised the twins when they reconnected? Twins, especially identical 1 twins, have always fascinated scientists. Identical twins develop from one egg, have identical DNA, 2 and are usually very similar in appearance and behavior. There have been many studies of identical twins raised in the same family. There have also been a number of studies of identical twins separated at birth and raised in separate families. These studies have provided interesting information about the impact of nature (genetics) and nurture (the environment) on the development of the individual. However, some of the studies have been controversial. 3 Take the case of Elyse Schein and Paula Bernstein. Elyse and Paula were identical twins separated at birth. Both girls knew that their parents had adopted them as infants, but neither girl knew about her twin. When Elyse grew up, she longed to meet her biological mother, so she contacted the agency that had arranged the adoption. She had been doing research on her birth mother when she made a surprising discovery. She had an identical twin. Even more surprising, she learned that she had been part of a secret scientific study. At the time of the adoption, the agency had allowed different families to adopt each twin. The agency had told the families that their child was part of a scientific study. However, it had never told the families the goal of the study: for scientists to investigate nature versus nurture. 5 10 15 20 1 identical: exactly the same | 2 DNA: the abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical that controls the structure and purpose of every cell | 3 controversial: causing or likely to cause disagreement View an e-sample of the entire book:
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Nature vs. Nurture 47 Past Perfect and Past Perfect Progressive Comprehension Check Answer the questions. 1. What was surprising about the twins’ adoption? 2. What characteristics and interests did Elyse and Paula have in common? 3. What is the nature versus nurture debate? C±± Notice Underline the verbs in each sentence. 1. Both girls knew that their parents had adopted them as infants. 2. She had been doing research on her birth mother when she made a surprising discovery. 3. She learned that she had been part of a secret scientific study. Which event happened first in each sentence? What event followed? Write the verbs. What do you notice about the form of the verbs? 1. First: Then: 2. First: Then: 3. First: Then: 2 Past Perfect Grammar Presentation The past perfect is used to describe a completed event that happened before another event in the past.
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