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History Midterm

History Midterm - History Midterm IDs Social Security Act...

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History: Midterm IDs: Social Security Act of 1935 Part of 2 nd New Deal Established that federal government had responsibility to deal with most vulnerable groups during the Depression (elderly, impoverished/dependent children, unemployed) Provided social protection to all citizens, including unemployment insurance and aid for poor families, law represented a fundamental break with traditional elitist notions that the poor and unemployed were to blame for their condition Contained two types of support for the elderly, those destitute in 1935 could receive a small federal pension and others in the long term would receive a federal pension Paid for by taxes on employees and employers Established a federal-state program of unemployment insurance, states administered this tax Ensured Americans had economic security and could continue to participate in the economy Economic growth was surest route to American social progress and economic well-being State should compensate capitalism’s flaws but should do so without interfering in internal-workings of capitalism Programs shifted responsibilities of state to individual American citizens, laid foundation to create welfare state Example of government using fiscal powers to tax citizens in the second new deal instead of its regulatory powers that it tried to use in the unsuccessful first new deal Goal of fiscal policy was to stimulate economic growth by aiding consumers in increasing their purchasing power and stimulating mass consumption Henry Ford Documentary Consumerism is about much more than simply relationship between employer and employee 1
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Problem between labor and capital was not resolved as of the 1920s, nothing Progressives had done had allowed the American state to take control and regulate the economy in any meaningful way Welfare capitalism – bargain that broke down in the 1920s Cathedral of Industry – Ford, heart of American industry – Detroit where Ford industry located By 1927 Ford controlled most important industry and was determined to let no one interfere Ford became isolated and feared he could not control his employees Ford produced cars better than they produced jobs, letting many go unemployed They hired more younger employees and let the older ones go Americans were living beyond their means, buying things on easy credit (cars) Hoover favored creating new jobs in private industry for the unemployed, felt that giving money would create a class of demoralized poor class Mass producing cars, refrigerators, etc. were now easy but the employers could no longer purchase the fruits of their labor August of 1931 Ford stopped making cars Taylorism and scientific management – look in book 14th Amendment Approved in 1868, granted full citizenship to African Americans and prohibited states from denying them “equal protection of the laws” Required for states to ratify as a condition for readmission into the Union
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History Midterm - History Midterm IDs Social Security Act...

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