NST10 - Lect7 lipids - NST 160 Lipids Marc K Hellerstein...

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NST 160 Lipids Marc K. Hellerstein, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Human Nutrition (D.H. Calloway Chair), University of California Berkeley; Professor of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nutrition, Dept. of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco
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Functions of lipids in the body Types of lipids Dietary lipids Outline Diseases of lipid utilization Health impact of different lipid intake
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Providing the major components of cell membranes (phospholipids, cholesterol) Use by many tissues as an energy source By far the major energy store in human body Providing the precursors for several hormones and signaling molecules in cells Functions of Lipids in the Cell and the Body Steroid hormones (e.g., estrogens, testosterone, cortisol, aldosterone) Prostaglandins and related molecules Fat soluble vitamins: A (retinoids), D (calcium and bone), E (anti- oxidant), K (blood clotting) Myelination of nerve fibers: allows efficient electrical impulse propagation in the brain Insulation and heat conservation – adipose tissue
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Saturated: animal fats, milk products Mono-unsaturated: e.g., olive oil Poly-unsaturated: vegetable oils Omega-3: oily fish Cholesterol-rich: meats, eggs, liver Types of Fats in the Diet Essential fatty acids: e.g., linoleic, linolenic, arachadonic
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1) Typical macronutrient content of western diet - Energy intake = 40-60% CHO, 25-45% fat, 15% protein - Calculates to ~75-150 grams fat/day 2) Recommended diet (“Prudent”; AHA; etc.) - <30% energy (<7% saturated;<1% trans); < 300 mg cholesterol/day; fish > twice/week What Lipids Do People Eat? 3) Major differences in types of dietary fat among countries and populations - e.g.,. Mediterranean (mono-unsaturated); milk and meat (saturated); fish (omega-3); developing countries (small % dietary energy)
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Body can convert CHO and alcohol to fat Process is called de novo lipogenesis But most body fat is from diet: we “are what we eat” for fat Source of Body Fat: We “Are What We Eat” If dietary fat composition is changed, the fatty acids in body fat stores after 6 months will reflect the new diet
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Fat stores represent by far the greatest store of energy in the human body Close to 150,000 KiloCalories in non-obese humans Great majority of stored fats are in adipose tissue
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