NST10 - Lect11 VitsEnergyMetab6

NST10 - Lect11 VitsEnergyMetab6 - Micronutrients Vitamins...

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1 Micronutrients Vitamins and minerals (trace metals) Funk - vital amines McCollum - fat soluble A and water soluble B Water Soluble Vitamins Fat Soluble Vitamins Water Soluble Vitamins Fat Soluble Vitamins Dissolve in water No real stores Readily excreted Function: coenzymes Subject to cooking and food storage loss Not required daily Fat soluble Stored in tissues Function: hormones, blood clotting, antioxidants Absorbed by lymphatic system with fats Not required daily Water soluble vitamins • B complex plus vitamin C • Required in diet (niacin can be synthesized) • Act as enzyme cofactors (catalysts) • Deficiencies used to be common - rare today in US because of mixed diets and enrichment • People on poor diets often deficient in multiple vitamins - single deficiencies are rarer Water soluble vitamins • “Natural vitamins” are often less bio- available than “synthetic” vitamins • RDAs usually based on amounts that prevent clinical deficiency symptoms • Losses in food preparation, storage and cooking • Not stored in body - large doses of some vitamins can be toxic Whole grains contain original nutrients! Many nutrients lost through milling • Grain/cereal products enriched with: folate, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron • Still deficient? - fiber, vitamin B 6 , Mg and zinc Recommended Dietary Intakes Increasing Intake UL Risk of inadequacy Risk of excess 0.5 0.5 EAR AI RDA 1.0 1.0
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2 Recommended Dietary Intakes Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) consist of 4 values: 1. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) 2. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
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NST10 - Lect11 VitsEnergyMetab6 - Micronutrients Vitamins...

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