Lecture 10 - Earth - Atmosphere

Lecture 10 - Earth - Atmosphere - Earth Atmosphere...

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Earth: Atmosphere ASTRONOMY 3 Lesson 10 1 View of Earth from space - notice the blue band on the horizon, which comprises most of the vertical extent of Earth’s atmosphere. The image has been obtained from the Space Shuttle during STS39 (see http://earth.jsc.nasa.gov/ - STS039-601-49.JPG )
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NATURE of the Universe Review of Lesson 9 Astronomy - Earth: Atmosphere • Earth consists of a high-density core made of iron and nickel, a mantle made of basaltic rock, and a lower-density crust. • Earthquakes are caused by the movement of different pieces of Earth’s crust (“plates”) relative to each other. This mechanism is called plate tectonics. • The driving force for plate tectonics is heat from Earth’s interior, which gets transported to the surface by convection. 2
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NATURE of the Universe Questions from Lesson 9 Astronomy - Earth: Atmosphere Think about (questions from Lesson 9): • How does a greenhouse work? • Is the greenhouse effect good or bad? 3
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• Earth’s atmosphere 101 (Ch. 5.3) • Ozone Layer (Ch. 5.3) • Greenhouse effect (Ch 5.3) • Global Warming (Ch. 5.3) • Announcement: Mid-term Exam 1 - Wed, Oct 25 at 12:00pm (noon) NATURE of the Universe Today’s Topics Astronomy - Earth: Atmosphere 4
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NATURE of the Universe Atmosphere 101 Astronomy - Earth: Atmosphere What is Earth’s atmosphere made of? Earth Venus Nitrogen 78.1% 3.5% Oxygen 20.9% --- Argon 0.9% 0.007% Carbon- dioxide 0.038% 96.5% Earth’s atmosphere is a mixture of gases. After subtracting water vapor, which amounts typically to 1% to 4%, the composition of “dry air” is The dominant component of Earth’s atmosphere is Nitrogen . For comparison, on Venus, the dominant component is Carbon-dioxide. 5
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NATURE of the Universe Atmosphere 101 Astronomy - Earth: Atmosphere The main zones of Earth’s atmosphere. Weather is taking place in the troposphere . The Ozone layer is located in the stratosphere . 6
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NATURE of the Universe Atmosphere 101 Astronomy - Earth: Atmosphere What causes the weather? The ground absorbs solar radiation and warms itself and the air close to the ground . Warm air is rising . 7
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NATURE of the Universe Atmosphere 101 Astronomy - Earth: Atmosphere What causes wind? At greater heights, the warm rising air is cooling down, and falling back to Earth. This is convection (the same principle which drives plate tectonics). It creates winds, low- and high-pressure zones and storm systems. 8
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NATURE of the Universe Ozone Layer Astronomy - Earth: Atmosphere What is ozone? Oxygen molecule: O 2 This is what we breathe Ozone: O 3 Ozone is chemically highly re-active Is it good or bad (healthy or unhealthy)? 9
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NATURE of the Universe Ozone Layer Astronomy - Earth: Atmosphere Ozone in the troposphere (“low-level ozone”) On sunny days, engine exhaust reacts with O 2 to form ozone.
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Lecture 10 - Earth - Atmosphere - Earth Atmosphere...

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