PSY 101 Review_Sheet_exam1 with answers

PSY 101 Review_Sheet_exam1 with answers - Review Sheet...

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Review Sheet – Exam #1 This review sheet is designed to help you organize your studying. It is not all inclusive – you are responsible for all material covered in the book AND in lecture! Before each exam, you should: read each chapter carefully review lecture notes be familiar with all vocabulary listed at the end of each chapter. Prologue – The Story of Psychology 1) What is psychology? - Scientific study of behavior and mental processes (keyword science) 2) Describe pre-scientific psychology. What were the beliefs of early philosophers regarding the mind-body relationship? a. People were said to think with their hearts and feel with their bowels b. Aristotle said “the soul is not separable from the body, and the same holds good of particular parts of the soul” i. He said knowledge is not preexisting, instead, it grows from the experiences stored in our memories 3) For each of the psychological perspectives listed below, know a) the main characteristics of the perspective, and b) the important theorists associated with it: Structuralism and functionalism o An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. To discover the elements of mind by looking inward. (lecture): By introspection, can we discover the parts of the mind? Titchener’s method was to engage people in self reflective introspection (looking inward), training them to report elements of their experience as they looked at a rose, smelled a scent or tasted something. What were they immediate sensations, images and feelings? How did these relate to one another? o An early school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function and how they enable the organism to adapt, survive and flourish. (lecture): How does the mind help us adapt to our environment? Behavioral perspective (John Watson ‘father’ and B.F. Skinner) o Only interested in observable behavior. How do we learn to fear particular objects? o Disavows the “Mind”. How we learn observable responses. Humanistic perspective (Carl Rogers) o Psychology should improve human welfare o Disavows the study of lower animals Psychodynamic perspective
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o Focuses on the unconscious aspects of the mind and psychosexual development, how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts. 4) Explain the nature-nurture debate a. The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. b. “Do our human traits develop through experience, or do we come equipped with them?” 5) Describe the biopsychosocial approach. What are some examples of biological, psychological, and social-cultural influences?
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