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Unformatted text preview: PSY 101 Test 2- Important Terms Ch. 7 States of Consciousness Consciousness- Our awareness of ourselves and our environment Biological Rhythms- Periodic psychological fluctuations (ex. Annual Cycles) Circadian Rhythms- The biological clock; regular body rhythms (ex. Temperature) that occur on a 24 hour cycle Suprachiasmatic nucleus- A pair of pinhead-sized clusters of 20,000 cells that control the circadian clock does so (partly) by causing the brains pineal gland to decrease (in morning) or increase (in evening) its production of the sleep-inducing hormone melatonin REM Sleep- Rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also know as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active Alpha waves- The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake brain Sleep- Periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness- as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation Hallucinations- False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus (may occur in sleep stage 1) Hypnagogic sensations- Hallucinations during stage 1 of floating off bed or falling off building- body suddenly jerks awake Sleep Spindles- Occur in stage 2- bursts of rapid, rhythmic brainwave activity Delta Waves- The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep- Slow wave sleep- in stages 3 and 4 and for about minutes in which it is very difficult to be awakened Adenosine- accumulated in body the longer we are awake and inhibits certain neurons, making us sleepy Erectile Dysfunction- (Impotence)- men who are troubled by this yet still achieve morning erections suggests the problem is psychological Paradoxical Sleep- Condition of REM sleep were the body in internally aroused and externally calm Insomnia- Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep Narcolepsy- A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times Sleep Apnea- A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings Night Terrors- A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered Dream- A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping persons mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamers delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it....
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