Unformatted text preview: Pre Lab Quiz 1 1. Laboratory sessions for this course will be held in _______________? 129 Science Center Classroom Building 2. The computer program that we will be using to generate data from fly crosses is called? Electronic Fly Colony 3. The scientific (genus species) name for the fruitfly (or red-eyed pomace fly) is? Drosophila melanogaster 4. Fruitflies have ____ pairs of chromosomes? 4 5. Female fruitflies can easily be distinguished from males. Select two of the following characteristics that would identify a female. Larger than Males Ovipositor on tip of abdomen 6. Four options are available at the start of the flylab program. Which option will we be using this week? Mendelian 7. With a few exceptions that we will discuss later in the course, the flies used as Parentals in the flylab will always be homozygous (see page 1-16). This insures that all offspring in the 1st Filial generation will be? Heterozygous 8. A total of 420 offspring are produced. Some are red and some are blue. Given the cross that you made, you expected a ratio of 3 red : 1 blue. How many red offspring did you expect from the 420 progeny? 315 9. In a recent survey of students in General Genetics, 97 identified themselves are female and 114 as male. Use Chi-Squared analysis to determine if this sample fits an expected ratio of 1:1. The Observed Chi-Squared calculated from these data is ____? 1.37 Pre Lab Quiz 2 1. Mendel's Second Principle describes the interactions between alleles at 2 different loci. This is the Principle of ______________? Segregation 2. Assume that allele A is dominant to a, and B is dominant to b. Match each of the following crosses with the expected phenotypic ratio. AaBb x aabb 1:1:1:1 Aabb x AaBb 3:1:3:1 AaBb x AaBb 9:3:3:1 3. In fruitflies, Wild Eye is dominant over Sepia Eye. Wild Wing is dominant over Rough Wing. Using the Electronic Fly Colony you select the following Parental cross: Wild, Wild Male x Sepia, Rough Female Select the 2 genotypes that would produce these phenotypes. AABB male aabb female 4. Assume that two loci both exhibit Dominant/Recessive modes of inheritance where Red is dominant over Blue, and Smooth is dominant over Rough. If two dihybrid heterozygous individuals (standard F1 cross) are mated, how many Blue Smooth progeny would you expect out of 288 F2 progeny? 54 5. A fruitfly is found to have the genotype AaBbCCDdEe. How many different gamete genotypes could this fly produce? 16 6. In peas, Round seeds are dominant over Wrinkled, and Yellow is dominant over Green. A wrinkled, yellow (aaBb) plant is crossed with a round, yellow(AaBb) plant and a large number of offspring are produced. Given the results below, calculate the overall Chi-Squared (observed) value for these data. Hint: You will first need to determine the expected Phenotypic ratio for this cross.
Offspring 250 150 250 150 Phenotypes Wrinkled, Yellow Wrinkled, Green Round, Yellow Round, Green 66.67 7. Assortment Ratios can be produced from two or more Segregation Ratios using the _____________ Rule. Multiplication (Product) Lab Extended Quiz 1. Chromosomes are replicated during which phase of Mitosis? none of above (prophase, metaphase, anaphase) 2. Figure A shows chromosomes as they would be arranged in ______ of ______, while Figure B illustrates the arrangement during __________ of _________. Metaphase of Mitosis / Metaphase I of Meiosis 3. Fruitflies have a diploid number of 8. How many homologous pairs of chromosomes are present in the nucleus of a somatic cell in a fruitfly? 4 4. Fruitflies have a diploid number of 8. How many chromatids would be present in a fruitfly cell during late prophase? 16 5. Back to fruitflies. Assume that both members of one homologous pair carry the allele B. How many copies of B would exist in the nucleus at the start of prophase during Mitosis? 4 6. Fruitflies again. Assume that both members of one homologous pair carry the allele B. How many copies of B would exist in the nucleus of each daughter cell following Mitosis? 2 7. Assume that a species of plant has a haploid number of 6. How many chromatids would be present during prophase I of meiosis? 24 8. Assume that a species of plant has a haploid number of 6. How many centromeres would be present during prophase I of meiosis? 12 9. Assume that a species of plant has a haploid number of 6. An individual plant is found to have the genotype Aa. How many copies of allele a would exist in the nucleus during early prophase I? 2 10. Assume that a species of plant has a haploid number of 6. An individual plant is found to have the genotype Aa. How many copies of allele A would exist in each gamete following Meiosis? 1 11. A human cell with a diploid number of 46 undergoes Meiosis. How many chromatids are present in each cell formed at the end of Meiosis I? 46 12. Assuming no crossover, which of the following figures (A, B, or C) correctly illustrates the expected arrangement of alleles during Meiosis I? B 13. Which event in Meiosis produces the results described by Mendel in his 1st Principle? homologs separating at Anaphase I 14. Which event in Meiosis produces the results being described under Mendel's 2nd Principle? random alignment of non-homologs pairs of chromosomes during Metaphase I 15. Color in snapdragons is an incomplete dominant trait with red and white being homozygotes and pink produced from heterozygotes. Stem height demonstrates classic dominant/recessive inheritance with tall dominant to short. A pure breeding Red Tall plant is crossed to a pure breeding White Short. If this cross is continued to the F2 generation, how many Pink Short progeny would you expect out of 512 offspring? 64 16. Color in snapdragons is an incomplete dominant trait with red and white being homozygotes and pink produced from heterozygotes. Stem height demonstrates classic dominant/recessive inheritance with tall dominant to short. A pure breeding Red Tall plant is crossed to a pure breeding White Short. If this cross is continued to the F2 generation, how many Pink Tall progeny would you expect out of 512 offspring? 192 17. A human couple has the following genotypes: AB Rh+ rh- MN x AB Rh+ rh- MN What is the probability that their second child will have the phenotype: A rh- MN 1 in 32 18. A standard dihybrid F1 cross produces four classes of progeny that you test using an expected ratio of 9:3:3:1. The observed Chi-squared value that you calculate = 6.36. Given these results the best conclusion would be to __________ a fit to the 9:3:3:1 ratio. fail to reject 19. Snapdragons once again. If two pink plants are crossed and the progeny are found to be 42 red : 110 pink : 48 white. The observed Chi-squared value for the expected phenotypic ratio would be? 2.36 20. A phenotypic ratio of 1:1:1:1 is the expected result from a ________ cross? dihybrid recessive backcross Pre Lab Quiz 3 1. Match each of the following "signature" ratios with the most likely Mode of Inheritance 2:1 Recessive Lethal 1:2:1 Incomplete Dominant 3:1 Dominant/ Recessive 2. A somatic cell of a male fruit fly has how many autosomes? 6 3. Which chromosome pair functions as the sex chromosomes in fruit flies? Pair 1 4. Fruit flies exhibit _______ Mode of Gender Determination. Lygaeus 5. Relative to the sex chromosomes, human females are the ___________ gender. homogametic 6. In fruit flies, bristle shape is found to be incompletely dominant with bent bristled flies being heterozygous. For eye color, orange is dominant over wild in a simple Mendelian fashion. Assume that two bent bristled, oranged eyed flies (standard F1 cross) are mated, how many of their 560 progeny would you expect to be bent bristled, oranged eyed? 210 7. A locus is found that controls body color. The gray allele at this locus also acts as a recessive lethal. The term given in cases such as this, when one locus affects multiple traits, is __________? pleiotrophy 8. Reciprocal crosses are performed and results differ in both the F1 and F2 generations. These findings suggest that the trait under consideration exhibits the _________ Mode of Inheritance. Sex Linked Pre Lab Quiz 4 1. For this week's exercise, you will be selecting which module at the start of the Fly Colony program? Advanced 2. Linkage is considered to be a violation of Mendel's Principle of _________ Independent Assortment 3. Fruit flies have _______ pairs of chromosomes. 4 4. All loci located on Chromosome pair _______ of fruit flies would exhibit sex-linked mode of inhertance. 1 5. The single cross that we will use throughout this laboratory to examine linkage is the _____________________ Dihybrid Recessive Backcross 6. The Fly Colony module used this week has a major difference from the previous weeks. Once you select a F1 offspring to use as an F2 parent, the program automatically selects the other parent to be a ______ ______ ______ genotype. This choice assures that the expected final assortment ratio will always be 1:1:1:1. Dihybrid Double Recessive 7. Exercise 1 in this week's lab uses different starting crosses to examine the concept of ______________________ Configuration 8. By the end of this week's lab, you are expected to have completed a _________ Written Report 9. The area of the written report where you are expected to fully describe how you set up your experiment is called the _______________ Protocol 10. The last area that you should include in any scientific report is the ________________________. This area is very important because it is where you describe in your own words how the observed results relate to what you expected the results to be. This area will be graded very carefully. Conclusion Pre Lab Quiz 5 1. Which of the following crosses is the most useful for solving a 3-point mapping problem? AaBbCc x aabbcc 2. The following data will be used for all of the remaining questions on this quiz. You may return to this question as needed or write the data down now Three loci are found to be located (linked) on Chromosome 2 in fruit flies. At locus 1, wild is dominant over tall (a). For locus 2, wild is dominant over red (b) and for locus 3, wild is dominant over bent (c). Assume that a standard trihybrid backcross is made and the following progeny are produced: tall red bent 300 wild 280 red bent 11 tall 12 tall bent 41 tall red 160 red 39 bent 162 Based on these data, match each of the following phenotypes with the appropriate label: Parental =tall, red, bent Single Crossover =tall, red Double Crossover =red, bent 3. The order of the three loci is: b-a-c 4. The distance between the locus for tall (a) and the locus for red (b) is ______ map units? 10.3 5. The distance between the locus for tall (a) and the locus for bent (c) is ________ map units? 34.3 Pre Lab Quiz 6 1. On a pedigree, an open circle is the symbol for a ____________ Normal Female 2. On a pedigree, a solid square is a symbol for a(n) _________________ Affected male 3. If on a pedigree you observed the following characteristics, which mode of inheritance is most likely being expressed by the affected phenotype: Affected phenotype skips a generation Males and females equally affected Unaffected matings sometimes have affected offspring Autosomal Recessive 4. The arrow points to the first person that came to the attention of the geneticist making the pedigree. This person is termed the ___________ Proband 5. Given the pedigree below, the most likely Mode of Inheritance for the affected phenotype shown would be __________________. Autosomal Recessive 6. The most probable genotype of the individual identified with the number 1 is ___________ aa 7. The most probable genotype of the individualidentified by the number 2 (open square) is _____________ Aa 8. The most probable genotype of the individual identified by the number 3 (open circle is __________ Aa 9. The most probable genotype of the individual identified by the number 4 (solid circle) is ___________ aa 10. Fraternal twins are _____________________ two individuals arising from different fertilized eggs but born at the same time Pre Lab Quiz 7 1. __________ is a series of techniques by which biomolecules can be separated based on size, length and/or shape. Electrophoresis 2. You will be using a new computer program this week called ELS which stands for ________ ________ _______ Electrophoresis Learning System 3. The fragments of DNA that we will be examining this week in lab will be separated based on fragment _____________. length 4. When using the ELS program, the samples should be heated for a minimum of _______ minutes 5 5. When loading the Electrophoresis gel in the <I>ELS</I> program, you will be limited to a maximum of ________ samples per gel. 16 6. To provide adequate time to separate your DNA fragments, you should electrophoresis your samples for ___________ hours. 4 7. The final step in the ELS program is to "develop" your gel so that the DNA fragments become visible. This techinque uses a small amount of radioactive 32-P and is called ___________________. Autoradiography 8. The DNA fragments used in this will exhibit a very simple mode of inheritance, which is ___________________ Co-dominance 9. Because of the simple mode of inheritance it will be very easy to distinguish homozygotes from heterozygotes during this lab exercise. Homozygotes will all show _______ bands and heterozygotes will all show __________ bands. 1/2 10. The Genotyping that we will be using in this exercise provides us with an example of how Science can help solve a problem. Genotyping also provides us with another critical lesson, namely ____________________. Uncertainty exists in all scientific studies Pre Lab Quiz 8 1. _____________________ is a technique for determining the precise order of the nucleotides in a DNA fragment.. DNA Sequencing 2. PCR is a laboratory technique that allows geneticists to precisely generate millions of copies of small fragments of DNA. The letters PCR are an abbreviation for ____________________________. Polymerase chain reaction 3. The most commonly used sequencing technique was developed in 1977 by Dr. Fred Sanger and is called ___________________ sequencing. chain termination 4. The Sanger sequencing technique relies on 5 main components: DNA template, a DNA primer, four deoxynucleoside triphosphates, DNA polymerase and ________________. dideoxynucleotides 5. To provide a common access point for all sequences, the National Institutes of Health created a free repository called _____________. GenBank 6. To determine the identity of your DNA samples, we will be using a search program provided by the NIH (National Institutes of Health). This program is called ____________ BLAST 7. The figure below represents a sequencing gel. "Read" the gel and determine the DNA sequence for this individual. In the space below, carefully type in the first ten (10) bases of this sequence. Type the sequence as "GACCGC etc" and do not skip any spaces between letters.___________________. ccttcgcaca Pre Lab Quiz 9 1. __________ the area of science that represents a merger of computer science, mathematics and biology. bioinformatics 2. The source of the DNA used in this laboratory exercise will be ________ mitochondrial DNA 3. This week's exercise will examine nucleotide variation in six species of ________ mammals 4. Phylogenetic "trees" are also know as phenograms and cladograms but the most general term for such graphs is _____________ dendrograms 5. For this week's exercise, we will be using the _______ or similarity-based method of tree construction, specifically the ___________ algorithm. Phenetic / Nearest Neighbor Pre Lab Quiz 10 1. Watson and Crick proposed the model of replication termed _____________ Semi-conservative 2. DNA polymerase add nucleotides in the ___________ direction. 5' --> 3' 3. According to Kornberg, Replication starts at a specific point called the ___________ origin 4. ________ lays down a RNA primer during Replication Primase 5. Reduces supercoiling of DNA strands ______________ Gyrase 6. _________ binds RNA primer at 3’OH and makes new strands of DNA. DNA Polymerase 7. _________ opens DNA strands making them ssDNA helicase 8. __________ joins together the newly synthesized strands of DNA by sealing the phosphodiester bonds Ligase 9. ______ fills in any gaps created at tips of the 3’ ends in the old DNA strand Telomerase 10. The end productions of Replication are ___________________ sister chromatids Pre Lab Quiz 11 1. ____________ is the conversion of mRNA to Amino Acids Translation 2. Codons always consist of how many nucleotides? 3 3. The genetic code is said to be ___________ because 1 amino acid can be coded by more than 1 codon degenerate 4. The universal Start Codon is __________ and codes for MET AUG 5. Aminoacyl synthetase is an enzyme involved in _______ Charging of tRNAs Pre Lab Quiz 12 1. Mutations caused or induced by external factors, usually chemical or environmental are termed _________ induced 2. An exchange of a purine for a purine or a pyrimidine for a pyrimidine would be termed a ________ mutation transition 3. Replacement of a purine by a pyrimidine would be an example of a ________ mutation. transversion 4. A gain or loss of a nucleotide from a mRNA frequently results in a __________ mutation. Frameshift 5. Changes to nucleotides in the second position of codons most frequently results in ___________ mutations. Missense ...
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- Spring '08
- DNA, fruitflies, pre lab quiz