Study_Guide_exam_3 - Communication 200 Study Guide Exam 3...

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Communication 200 Study Guide: Exam 3 Chapter 6. Verbal Behavior Approaches Define signs and referents Signs stand for or represent something The object or concept represented is called a referent Distinguish between signals and symbols. Provide examples. Types of signs Signals express a direct one-to-one relationship to the referent; natural signs o Sweating = nervousness; Burned stumps in forest = forest fire Symbols : no direct one-to-tone relationship to the referent (like words) o Word “horse” does not have a direct relationship to the animal o May have multiple meanings o Meaning depends upon the perception of the interpreter “Rock” can be stone, action, music, etc. LANGUAGE IS SYMBOLIC, allows us to share meaning What are the two kinds of meaning? Provide examples of each. Meaning is accomplished when humans interpret symbols Denotation : literal meaning (dictionary) Connotation : personal associations with word Ex : word “Mother” o Denotation: a female parent o Connotation: for one individual may be thought of as “loving,” “kind,” etc. For communication to occur some shared understanding of denotation is necessary What is the essential premise of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis ? Provide an example. The language system we learn from our culture has profound influence on how we interpret the world; Theory of Linguistic Relativity ** Higher levels of thought depend upon language! Structure of a language influences the way the environment is understand o Eskimo: different words for different kinds of snow o Hopi: time is psychological rather than psychical Language shapes the way we see the world and behave o In our culture, when someone picks a fight we might say “don’t be a jerk (bad)” while in another culture they might say “don’t be immature” o We act differently toward someone who is “bad” as opposed to “immature” Why is the manner in which questions are phrased important? How questions are phrased affects perception and the responses given to questions Describe a research study that illustrates this idea. (By Loftus) Subjects were shown a film of a car accident. Some then asked, “Did you see the broken headlight?” Others asked, “Did you see a broken headlight?” Subjects responded
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differently to the two questions o Question biases what is perceived and remembered o Limiting the range of responses affects memory o Easy to structure a question to manipulate a particular answer This research has major implications for how surveys are phrased Name and give examples of four types of “Powerless” language. Verbal Intensifiers o “So,” “quite,” “really,” etc. o
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This note was uploaded on 09/15/2008 for the course COMM 201 taught by Professor Durbin during the Spring '06 term at USC.

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Study_Guide_exam_3 - Communication 200 Study Guide Exam 3...

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