locomotion - CHAPTER 9 Energetics of Locomotion and...

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CHAPTER 9 Energetics of Locomotion and Osmoregulation
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Swimming and diving represent major energetics expenditures in marine mammals 80% of daytime activity in a dolphin Cost of swimming affected by water flow patterns
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Important properties of water are: Density Viscosity Kinematic viscosity (ratio of density to viscosity) Water is 800X more dense than air Water is 30X more viscous
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Advantages to moving through water: Propulsive forces are easier to generate Marine mammals tend to be neutral buoyant Can maintain vertical position with little energy expenditure
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Marine mammals must overcome components of hydrodynamic drag in order to swim efficiently or at high velocities: Influenced by body size and shape Dolphin body form allows animal to slip through water with little resistance as possible
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Frictional Drag Result of animals wetted surface, kinematic viscosity of the water, and the character of the water flow in the boundary layer near the swimmer’s body surface. Is low if the flow in the boundary layer is laminar and high if it is turbulent
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Pressure Drag Consequence of displacing an amount of water equal to the swimmer’s largest cross- sectional area (from a head-on-view)
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Water Drag When swimming at or near the surface Creates surface waves As marine mammals continually return to surface to breathe, can contribute significantly to overall drag the animal must overcome
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Induced Drag Created by the hydrofoils (flukes and flippers) that the animals use to create thrust.
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Frictional and pressure drag of a fast swimmer are reduced with a streamline body form that is bluntly rounded at the front end, tapered to a point in the rear, and round in cross section. A measure of streamlining , the fineness ration, for
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This note was uploaded on 10/13/2008 for the course BIOL 4865 taught by Professor X during the Spring '08 term at University of New Brunswick.

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locomotion - CHAPTER 9 Energetics of Locomotion and...

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