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Study Guide for Final

Study Guide for Final - The Education of Cyrus 1[I.2 How is...

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The Education of Cyrus 1. [I.2] How is the nature of law in Persia different than in most cities? The nature of law in Persia is different than those in most cities in that they care for the common good. Most cities allow each to educate children however they please and allow the adults to live however they please, and then if a law is violated the person is punished. But in Persia, they take care that the citizens will not in the first place have a desire to break any laws or commit any injustice. The boys (up to about 16 yrs old) are educated in justice. The youth (about 16-26) learn to hunt. The mature men (26-50) do military service (if necessary). The elders (50+) perform various tasks (choose magistrates, etc.). Gov’t is shepherd and is concerned with the moral education of the children. 2. [I.3] Cyrus recounts that his teacher beat him because he did not judge a case correctly. What was wrong with is judgment? What did Cyrus learn from this? Cyrus judged that it was better that both boys had a fitting tunic, even though the larger boy technically stole the large tunic from the other child. Cyrus was beaten, though, because it is illegal to take away by force or to posses what someone else has purchased. The teacher says that the lawful is just, and the unlawful violent. Despite of this, feels that justice does not depend on consent or law, rather, it is what is good for all people involved. 3. [I.3] Cyrus’ mother noted that his father and her father rule in very different ways. How did they differ? In Media, Cambeses (Cyrus's grandfather) is the “master of everything.” He is basically a tyrant. He teaches others how to be happy under the law and with having less, and is above the law. Cyrus's father, on the other hand, is under the law, and is first to do and accept what has been ordered by the city. For in Persia, to have what is equal is believed to be just. 4. [I.5] In his speech to the one thousand, Cyrus motivates them, saying, I do not think that human beings practice any virtue in order that those who become good have no more than do the worthless.” What did he mean by this? He means that by practicing virtue now, they are preparing to enjoy the benefits much more in the future. For by acting virtuously, they will secure much wealth, much happiness, and great honor for both themselves and the city. This separates the Peers from their ancestors, who, Cyrus says, were virtuous only for the sake of being virtuous. (Those who abstain do it not to not do it, but so they can enjoy it more in the future.) 5. [I.6] Cyrus’ father believed that “being loved by one’s subjects” is among “the most important matters.” In his view, how does a ruler accomplish this?
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A ruler accomplishes this by rejoicing along with them if some good should befall them, in grieving along with them if some evil, in being enthusiastic to join in helping them in difficulties, in fearing lest they should fail in something, in trying to use forethought that they do not fail. And in action, if it is summer, the ruler must be evident in being greedy
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