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Unformatted text preview: 8-29 Continued from last class... 3. Experiments a. Compare 2 groups i. Experimental group: receives treatment ii. Control group: doesn't receive the treatment b. Direct manipulation of the main independent variable c. Random assignment is key d. Many varieties of experiments i. Some have several experimental groups ii. Many fail to use true random assignment and as called quasi experiments Field observations a. Behavior is observed by researchers as t occurs in real life situations b. 2 main forms: i. Participant observation: researcher participates in someway in the observed behavior 1. Participate in group acts 2. Shadow a subject ii. Unobtrusive observation: researcher does not get involved in acts 1. Observe from distance 2. Limited because of no direct interaction 4 difficulties in conducting sociological research o All evidence has limitations Secondary analysis Limited in range and depth Uneven data quality Surveys Rely on self disclosure Often influenced by social desirability bias (the tendency for ppl to say what is socially desirable) Experiments Artificial setting can alter results Limited to what can be studied Often based on college students must be generizable??? Field observations Rarely is there random sampling Often small scale Researchers become overly involved o Extreme form: going native o Behavior as Evidence Reactivity: (Hawthorne effect) the tendency for people to behave 4. differently while being studied o Causes of social phenomenon are often difficult to measure Easy to measure causal variables Education and gender Hard to measure causal variables Ambition, connections, positive attitude, love o Difficulties in measuring or "operizationaliing" dependent variables ...
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- Fall '08