History 120 Mid term study guide 2.docx

History 120 Mid term study guide 2.docx - Midterm Exam#2...

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Midterm Exam #2 Study Guide History 120 Prof. Leikin The second midterm exam will consist of one essay selected by me from the list below. Please bring a large green exam book. The exam is scheduled for April 25 th . 1. Define the “market revolution” and explain how it evolved and impacted economic development in the United States during the first 50 years of the 19 th century. How did it affect people personally and how did people cope with the changes it created in human relations? The market revolution brought about the economic growth through new means of transportation and communication Changes prompted vigorous political debates over economic policies, transportation improvements, and the extension of slavery into the new territories In the Northeast o Began to reshape the region’s economy and propel an unrelenting process of urbanization In the West o Commercial agriculture began to emerge In the South o Cotton became the main source of production and caused the expansion of slavery Innovations in transportation and communication knit together an expanding national market for goods and services Transportation o New roads o Water transportation o Railroad o Ocean transportation The revolution in transportation and communication linked rural communities to a worldwide marketplace Inventions in agriculture o Includes the cotton gin that increased cotton production in the South Expansion of slavery o The steel plow and the mechanized reaper helped make farming land more efficient and more profitable in the west o Improvement of transportations allowed goods to reach markets quicker and more cheaply
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o Railroads expanded rapidly Encourages new settlement and the expansion of farming Opening possibilities for quick and shady profits, it helped corrupt political life Decline of Native American culture o Telegraph Diminished the isolation of the West and united the country economically and socially Communication were conveyed by boat, train, or horseback or delivered by hand People could learn of events and exchange messages instantaneously By the end of 1840s, telegraph lines connected all major cities Immigration o The promise of cheap land and good wages drew millions of immigrants to America o The widespread use of slavery left few opportunities in the region for immigrant laborers Workers Organize o The first unions, formed by the artisans who feared a loss of status in the face of mechanization, were local and based on individual crafts o Early attempt of a national union collapsed with the panic of 1837 o Unions faced serious legal obstacles even after Massachusetts court ruled in 1842 that the formation of unions was legal o The dramatic social changes of the first half of the 19 th century opened an array of new professions The industrial expansion of the US during the first 19 th century spurred the profession of engineering o Women still worked primarily in the home Very few women pursed careered in male-dominated professions
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