8.2 Structure and Processes of Nervous System MHR - Part 2.pdf - UNIT 4 Structures and Processes of the Nervous System Part 2 Section 8.2 UNIT 4 Chapter

8.2 Structure and Processes of Nervous System MHR - Part 2.pdf

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8/25/16 1 Structures and Processes of the Nervous System – Part 2 Section 8.2 q Neurons use electrical signals to communicate with other neurons, muscles, and glands. q The signals, called nerve impulses , involve changes in the amount of electric charge across a cell’s plasma membrane. UNIT 4 Chapter 8: The Nervous System and Homeostasis Section 8.2 The Electrical Nature of Nerves q In a resting neuron, the cytoplasmic side of the membrane (inside the cell) is negative, relative to the extracellular side (outside the cell) q This charge separation across the membrane is a form of potential energy called membrane potential . UNIT 4 Chapter 8: The Nervous System and Homeostasis Section 8.2 Resting Membrane Potential When microelectrodes are inserted in a resting neuron, a voltmeter can indicate an electrical potential difference (voltage) across a neural membrane. q The resting membrane potential is the potential difference across a membrane in a resting neuron (about -70 mV). q It provides energy for generating a nerve impulse. q The process of generating a resting membrane potential of -70 mV is called polarization . UNIT 4 Chapter 8: The Nervous System and Homeostasis Section 8.2 Resting Membrane Potential q The sodium-potassium pump is the most important factor that contributes to the resting membrane potential. q This system uses ATP to transport three sodium ions (Na + ) out of the cell and two potassium ions (K + ) into the cell. q The overall result of this process is a constant membrane potential of -70 mV. UNIT 4 Chapter 8: The Nervous System and Homeostasis Section 8.2 Sodium-Potassium Pump sodium-potassium pump q Recall that a neuron is polarized due to the charge difference across the membrane.
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