PSY 103 Exam 1 Study Guide

PSY 103 Exam 1 Study Guide - 1Definition of psychology...

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1 Definition of psychology Psychology = the scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes Interests of psychologists Observable behavior of humans and other species of animals The individual Levels of analysis Different levels of analysis to observe behavior May support each other Goals of psychology Describing what happens Behaviors must be clearly defined so they can be measured Explaining what happens Why does the behavior occur? Free will vs. determinism People’s past behaviors determine future behavior Behavior follows certain rules and laws Predicting what will happen Makes psychology a science - application Easier to predict the behavior of a group than the individual The situation cannot be unique Controlling what happens A byproduct of prediction B.F. Skinner: There is no freewill; everyone is conditioned to believe they have freewill; people can be controlled Structuralism and functionalism Structuralism : the contents of the mind The study of the structure of mind and behavior All human mental experience can be understood as the combination of basic components Building blocks of behavior Functionalism : minds with a purpose Consciousness was an ongoing stream, a property of mind in continual interaction With the environment What is the foundation or purpose of any act? Schools of psychology Psychodynamic perspective Behavior driven by powerful inner forces Human actions stem from inherited instincts, biological drives, and attempts to resolve conflicts between personal needs and society’s demands Main purpose of action: reduce tension Sigmund Freud Early experiences affect later behavior Behaviorist perspective Understand how particular environmental stimuli control particular kinds of behavior
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Antecedent environmental conditions Behavioral response John Watson: psychological research should seek the laws that govern observable behavior across species B.F. Skinner: consequences of behaviors Precise definitions of the phenomena studied; rigorous standards of evidence Humanistic perspective People are innately good and capable of choice Look for patterns in people’s life histories Main task for humans is to strive for positive development Carl Rogers: individuals have a natural tendency toward psychological growth and health Abraham Maslow: self-actualization = each individual’s drive toward the fullest development of his or her potential Integrate knowledge of the individual’s mind, body, and behavior with an awareness of social and cultural forces Study emotionally healthy people and how they got to be that way Cognitive perspective Human thought and all the processes of knowing - attending, thinking, remembering, understanding People act because they think; people think because they are human beings, exquisitely equipped to do so Some of the most significant behavior emerges from totally novel ways of thinking, not from predictable ways used in the past Thoughts are results and causes of actions Patterns of blood flow in the brain during different types of cognitive tasks
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This note was uploaded on 10/13/2008 for the course PSY 103 taught by Professor Canli during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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PSY 103 Exam 1 Study Guide - 1Definition of psychology...

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