SOC 247 Final Review

SOC 247 Final Review - Jobs, Hierarchies, and Bodies. Acker...

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1. Jobs, Hierarchies, and Bodies. Acker 1. According to Acker, how are organizations gendered? 1. Gendered organization definition: 1. Advantage and disadvantage, exploitation and control, action and emotion, meaning and identity, are patterned through and in terms of a distinction between male and female, masculine and feminine 2. Gendering processes 1. Construction of divisions along lines of gender 2. Construction of symbols and images that explain, express, reinforce, or sometimes oppose these divisions 3. Interactions between women and men, women and women, men and men, including all patterns that enact dominance and submission 4. These processes help to produce gendered components of individual identity 1. Include consciousness of the existence of the other three aspects of gender 1. In organizations 2. Choice of appropriate work 3. Language use… etc. 5. Fundamental, ongoing processes of creating and conceptualizing social structures 2. How have organizations been represented as gender-neutral? 1. Both traditional and critical approaches to organizations originate in the male 1. Gender is difficult to see when only the masculine is present 2. Men in organizations take their behavior and perspectives to represent the human 3. Organizational structures and processes are theorized as gender neutral
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2. Sexuality is ignored 1. Gender neutral = asexual 2. Behaviors such as sexual harassment are viewed as deviations of gendered actors, not as components of organizational structure 2. Bring Men Back In. Reskin 1. What is occupational sex-segregation? 1. The segregation of men and women into different occupations 2. According to Reskin, what are the different explanations for occupational sex- segregation? 1. People's behavior is differentiated by their status-group 1. differentiation of behaviors that occur in the workplace 1. task differentiation 2. social differentiation. 2. because women are seen to be “emotional”, they take on jobs that are more nurturing. 3. in many occupations nominally being integrated, men and women remain highly segregated, with men concentrated in the highest-status and best- paying jobs. In some occupations, the growth of functions already socially labeled as "women's work" 3. Which explanation does Reskin find most convincing and why? 1. Pay gap that assigns primary responsibility to job segregation 1. Explains unequal outcomes without examining the dominant group's stake in maintaining them is incomplete 2. Like other dominant groups, men make rules that preserve their privileges. With respect to earnings, the current rule-that one's job or occupation determines one's pay-has maintained white men's economic advantage
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because men and women and whites and nonwhites are differently distributed across jobs. 3.
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SOC 247 Final Review - Jobs, Hierarchies, and Bodies. Acker...

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