SOC 247 Midterm Review

SOC 247 Midterm Review - Human Beings: An Engendered...

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1. Human Beings: An Engendered Species. Kimmel (R) 1. What is the interplanetary theory of gender difference? 1. Says that men and women are intrinsically different. 2. There is a universal definition of masculinity and femininity – all men and women embody the respective associated traits and behaviors. 2. What are some problems with this theory? 1. There are different definitions of masculinity and femininity based on culture, race, location, etc. 2. Gender isn’t a binary 3. If gender were biologically determined, there would be little variation across time and culture, because biological differences don’t vary greatly 3. What is Kimmel’s opinion of the theory? 1. It’s wrong 4. Why? 1. The differences within sexes are greater than the differences between them 2. The theory only takes into account the averages/norms, but the spectrum is very large 2. The Trouble with Testosterone. Sapolsky. (B). 1. What is the relationship between testosterone and violence? 1. Testosterone does not create to violence 2. Testosterone emphasizes aggression 3. Aggression leads to the secretion of more testosterone 3. Why Male and Female are not enough. Fausto-Sterling.
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1. What is a hermaphrodite? 1. True hermaphrodite = 1 testes 1 ovary 2. Pseudo hermaphrodites 1. Merms = testes and female genitalia 2. Ferms = ovaries and male genitalia 3. The binary is not enough, sex is a continuum 4. The Medical Construction of Gender. Kessler 1. How does the medical community manage bodies that don't readily fit into the categories male or female? 1. Male and female are the only “natural” options 1. Intersexuality is a treatable condition 2. Sex them 1. Based on: chromosomes, hormones, gonads, genitals 1. Esp. genitals b/c cultural factors 1. Have to look normal to others 3. Surgery 2. How do prevailing gender norms inform these decisions? 1. Bathrooms 3. How is sex determined? 1. Size of genitalia (penis or clitoris) 5. Martin. 1. What does Martin’s discussion of science texts reveal? 1. There are societal influences on egg and sperm
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2. Society misrepresents the egg and sperm in education and in the media 1. The egg is passive 2. The sperm is active 3. Egg is not really passive 1. Now seen as “evil” and “scheming” 4. It’s insulting to be called a “girl” or a “man” when you’re not 1. Still better to be called manly than girly 6. Doing Gender. West and Zimmerman (B). 1. How is gender a socially organized achievement? 1. When we “do” gender, we use actions that are socially accepted 2. What is a "master identity?" 1. Gender is a master identity because we are always expressing our genders 2. Other identities (i.e. teacher, student, mother, brother) are specific to the situation 3. Always accountable for gender 3. What is the difference between sex, sex category, and gender? 1.
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This note was uploaded on 10/13/2008 for the course SOC 247 taught by Professor Otis during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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SOC 247 Midterm Review - Human Beings: An Engendered...

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