Lab 24 Notes & Prelab

Lab 24 Notes & Prelab - Sarah Song BIO 205.33 April...

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Sarah Song April 29, 2008 BIO 205.33 Lab Preparation 11. How would DNA be used to see if humans are more closely related to chimpanzees or gorillas? The DNA sequences of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas could be used to compare the similarities and differences between all three. Humans would be more closely related to organisms who share the most similarities in DNA sequence. 12.What is one advantage that molecular data (DNA or proteins) have over morphological data when constructing phylogenies? Molecular data is objective, while morphological data can be subjective. Also, when looking at morphological data, homologous and analogous evolution cannot necessarily be determined. Molecular data allows us to actually see the genetic material that has been inherited. Morphological features can also be affected by things other than genes, such as environment. 13. What is the disadvantage of being homozygous for the sickle-cell anemia gene? The disadvantage of being homozygous of the sickle-cell anemia gene is that all red blood cells assume a sickle shape. This decreases the cells’ flexibility and restricts movement through blood vessels. This results in oxygen deprivation for tissues. What is the advantage of being heterozygous for this gene? The advantage of being heterozygous for sickle-cell anemia is that individuals with malaria will usually survive the disease because sickle-cells will not survive the pressure of being infects and will burst before the parasites can reproduce successfully. This prevents spread of the disease within the body. These individuals also have normal, healthy, red blood cells. 14. If a given mutation in a gene results in a shift from a polar amino acid to a
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Lab 24 Notes & Prelab - Sarah Song BIO 205.33 April...

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