Lecture 3 Notes

Lecture 3 Notes - BIO 202 Notes Lecture 3: pH and buffers,...

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BIO 202 Notes Lecture 3: pH and buffers, Macromolecules 1: Lipids and carbohydrates Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Macromolecules I. 5.1 Most macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers A. Macromolecules 1. Polymer: long molecule made up of repeating small molecules a. Monomers: small molecules B. The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers 1. Monomers polymers by condensation reaction, a.k.a. dehydration reaction a. Waste = water 2. Polymers monomers by hydrolysis II. 5.2 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material A. Carbohydrates = sugars and the polymers of sugars B. Sugars 1. Monosaccharides – simple sugars, simplest carbs a. Generally have molecular formulas that are some multiple of CH 2 O b. Typical sugar: i. carbonyl group (>C=O) Location determines whether a sugar is a(n) Aldose (aldehyde sugar) a. i.e. glucose Ketose (ketone sugar) a. i.e. fructose ii. multiple hydroxyl groups (-OH) iii. size of the carbon skeleton (3-7 carbons long) 6 (hexoses) i.e. glucose, fructose 3 (trioses) 5 (pentoses) iv. Spatial arrangement of parts around asymmetric carbons Asymmetric carbon = a carbon attached to four different kinds of partners c. Most sugars form rings in aqueous solutions d. Monosaccharides are major nutrients for cells
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BIO 202 Notes i. Fuel for cellular work ii. Raw material for the synthesis of other types of small organic molecules i.e. amino acids and fatty acids e. Sugar molecules that are not immediately used are incorporated as monomers into disaccharides or polysaccharides 2. Disaccharides a. Two monosaccharides joined by a i. Glycosidic linkage: covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction i.e. maltose: two glucose molecules sucrose a.k.a. table sugar (most common disaccharide): glucose and fructose lactose: glucose and galactose C. Polysaccharides 1. Polysaccarides = macromolecules: polymers with a hundreds or thousands of monosaccarides joined by glycosidic linkages a. Serve as i. Storage material, hydrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for
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Lecture 3 Notes - BIO 202 Notes Lecture 3: pH and buffers,...

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