Lecture 4 Notes

Lecture 4 Notes - 2. RNA: ribose 3. Nucleotide Polymers 1....

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BIO 202 Notes Lecture 4: Macromolecules 2: Nucleic Acids Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Macromolecules 1. 5.5 Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information 1. The Structure of Nucleic Acids 1. Nucleic acids are macromolecules that exist as polymers called polynucleotides 1. Composed of monomers called nucleotides 1. Nucleotide: nitrogenous base, pentose (5-carbon sugar), & phosphate group 1. 2. Nucleotide Monomers 1. Nitrogenous Bases 1. Two families: 1. Pyrimidines – has a 6-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms 1. Cytosine (C), Thymine (T), and Uracil (U) 2. Purines – larger; 6-membered ring fused to a 5-membered ring 1. Adenine (A) and Guanine (G) 2. Nitrogenous base b/c nitrogen atoms take up H + from solution 2. Pentose 1. DNA: deoxyribose 1. Lacks an oxygen atom on the second carbon in the ring
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Unformatted text preview: 2. RNA: ribose 3. Nucleotide Polymers 1. Adjacent nucleotides are joined by covalent bonds 1. Bonds called phosphodiester linkages 2. Join the OH group on the 3 carbon of one nucleotide and the phosphate on the 5 carbon of the next 3. Creates a sugar phosphate backbone 4. Direction from 5 to 3 2. The DNA Double Helix 1. Two suager-phosphate backbones run in opposite 5 3 directions 1. Antiparallel 2. Strands (polynucleotides) held together by hydrogen bonds between paired bases, van der Waals interactions between stacked bases 3. DNA and Proteins as Tape Measures of Evolution 1. DNA shows relationships between species BIO 202 Notes 1. Closely related species share a greater proportion of their DNA and protein sequences than more distantly related species...
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Lecture 4 Notes - 2. RNA: ribose 3. Nucleotide Polymers 1....

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