Che 131 Notes Ch. 3

Che 131 Notes Ch. 3 - Che 131 Notes Chapter 3: Chemical...

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Che 131 Notes Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds Lecture 6: Compounds, Hydrocarbons Reading 3.1-3.4 I. 3.1 Molecular Compounds A. molecular compound : atoms of two or more different elements are combined into the independent units known as molecules B. molecular formula : the number and kinds of atoms combined to make one molecule of the compound are indicated by subscripts and elemental symbols C. inorganic compounds : molecules that do not contain C or CH 1. many are ionic compounds D. organic compounds : always have C, usually have H, can also have O, N, S, P, halogens3 1. majority are composed of molecules 2. carbon atoms are nearly always bonded to other C atoms and to H atoms E. formulas 1. molecular formula a. organic compound: the symbols of the elements other than carbon are usually written in alphabetical order b. huge number of organic compounds: may not give sufficient info to indicate what compound is represented 2. structural formula : shows exactly how atoms are connected 3. condensed formula : modified form which shows how the atoms are grouped together in the molecule a. emphasize the atoms or groups of atoms connected to each carbon atom b. i.e. ethanol: CH 3 CH 2 OH II. 3.2 Naming Binary Inorganic Compounds A. binary molecular compounds : consist of molecules that contain atoms of only two elements 1. there is a binary compound of hydrogen with every nonmetal except the noble gases a. H compounds containing O, S, halogens: hydrogen is written named first, then the other nonmetal is named, ending in –ide 2. binary molecular compounds that contain nonmetallic elements from Groups 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A: a. the elements are listed in formulas and names in the order of the group numbers, and prefixes are used to designate the number of a particular kind of atom i. mono, di, tri, etc. 3. N 2 H 4 = Hydrazine, N 2 O = laughing gas (nitrous oxide), PH 3 = Phosphine III. 3.3 Hydrocarbons A. chemical bond : attractive force between two atoms holding them together 1. carbons can form strong, stable bonds with up to four other carbon atoms a. C atoms can form chains, branched chains, rings, etc. with C-C bonds B. Hydrocarbons : organic compounds composed of only C and H atoms 1. simplest class of organic compounds 2. alkanes : simplest major class of hydrocarbons
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a. economically impt fuels and lubes b. simplest: methane CH 4 c. general form: C n H 2 n +2 3. meth, eth, prop, but 4. alkane to alcohol a. CH 3 CH 3 ethane becomes CH 3 CH 2 OH ethanol (alcohol) when one of the hydrogens is replaced by an –OH group i. B.P. is significantly raised due to types of intermolecular interactions that are possible IV. 3.4 Alkanes and Their Isomers A. isomers : two or more compounds that have the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms 1. differ in one or more physical or chemical properties a. i.e. b.p., color, solubility, reactivity 2. constitutional isomers/structural isomers
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This note was uploaded on 10/13/2008 for the course CHE 131 taught by Professor Kerber during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Che 131 Notes Ch. 3 - Che 131 Notes Chapter 3: Chemical...

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