Che 131 Notes Ch. 11

Che 131 Notes Ch. 11 - Che 131 Notes Chapter 11 Liquids...

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Che 131 Notes Chapter 11: Liquids, Solids, and Materials Reading: 11.1-11.2, 11.3-11.4 I. 11.1 The Liquid State A. Molecules in a liquid 1. much closer together than in a gas a. remain mobile enough that the liquid flows 2. confined liquids are difficult to compress, their molecules move in all directions a. transmit applied pressure equally in all directions B. Viscosity : resistance of a liquid to flow 1. related to intermolecular forces a. determine how easily the molecules can move past each other, b. degree to which the molecules can become entangled 2. decreases as temperature increases a. molecules have more kinetic energy, attractive intermolecular forces are more easily overcome C. surface properties 1. beneath the surface a. molecules of the liquid are completely surrounded by other liquid molecules and experience intermolecular attractions in all directions 2. surface a. molecules have intermolecular interactions only with molecules below or beside them, but not above them b. unevenness of attractive forces at the liquid surface causes the surface to contract c. surface tension : energy required to expand a liquid surface i. higher for liquids that have strong intermolecular attractions i.e. water’s surface tension is relatively high: extensive hydrogen bonding causes the water molecules to attract each other strongly ii. prevents small objects with densities greater than that of water from breaking through the surface and sinking D. capillary action : when a glass tube with a small diameter is put into ware, the water rises in the tube 1. glass walls mostly SiO 2 a. water molecules form H bonds to the O atoms of the glass
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Che 131 Notes Ch. 11 - Che 131 Notes Chapter 11 Liquids...

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