Che 131 Notes Ch. 12

Che 131 Notes Ch. 12 - Che 131 Notes Chapter 12: Fuels,...

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Che 131 Notes Chapter 12: Fuels, Organic Chemicals, and Polymers Reading: 12.5-12.7 I. 12.5 Organic Chemicals A. Most known compounds are organic 1. up to thousands of carbon atoms can link in a single molecule by stable C–C bonds 2. occurrence of structural isomers 3. the variety of functional groups that bond to carbon atoms a. functional group : a distinctive grouping of atoms that, as part of an organic molecule, imparts specific properties to the molecule II. 12.6 Alcohols and Their Oxidation Products A. Alcohols contain one or more –OH functional groups bonded to carbon atoms B. Hydrogen Bonding in Alcohols 1. alcohols are like compounds in which alkyl groups such as CH 3 are substituted for one of the hydrogens of water a. the influence of hydrogen bonding is reduced C. Oxidation of Alcohols 1. Alcohols are classified according to the number of carbon atoms directly bonded to the –C–OH carbon a. Primary alcohol: no carbon atom or one carbon atom is bonded directly b. Secondary: two are bonded directly, Tertiary: three 2. oxidation of primary alcohols produces aldehydes, which are then oxidized to carboxylic acids (primary alcohol aldehyde carboxylic acid) a. oxidation of organic compounds generally results from either the loss of two H atoms or the gain of one O atom b. i.e. ethanol with aqueous potassium permanganate as the oxidizing agent acetaldehyde acetic acid c. aldehyde : a functional group class which contains a –CHO group d. carboxylic acid : a functional group class, contains a –COOH or –CO 2 H group 3. oxidation of secondary alcohols ketones a. ketone : a functional group class which contains the C=O group III. 12.7 Carboxylic Acids and Esters A. Carboxylic Acids 1. react with bases to form salts a. i.e. lactic acid + sodium hydroxide sodium lactate 2. polar, form hydrogen bonds with each other a. --. Relatively high boiling points B. Esters : contain the functional group 1. the –OH of the carboxylic acid is replaced by the –OR group from the alcohol 2. esterification is an example of a condensation reaction – C – O – R =
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Che 131 Notes a. condensation reaction : two molecules combine to form a larger molecule while simultaneously splitting out a small molecule (such as H 2 O) 3. esterification is important in the formation of triglycerides a. triglycerides: triesters formed by the reaction of long-chain fatty acids with glycerol, a trialcohol i. commonly known as fats or oils ii. three fatty acids in a triglyceride can be alike (simple triglyceride) or different (mixed triglyceride) iii. each of the fatty acids reacts with an –OH group of glycerol 4. esters are not very reactive; most impt reaction is hydrolysis a. hydrolysis reaction: bonds are broken by their reaction with water i. H– and –OH of water add to the atoms that were in the bond broken by hydrolysis ii.
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This note was uploaded on 10/13/2008 for the course CHE 131 taught by Professor Kerber during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Che 131 Notes Ch. 12 - Che 131 Notes Chapter 12: Fuels,...

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