Final Study Guide


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EAST ASIAN SOCIETIES FALL 2007 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE IDENTIFICATIONS 1. 1947 Constitution of Japan Japan formally surrendered on September 2, 1945 while under the control of a U.S. army of occupation. An International Allied Council for Japan, sitting in Tokyo, was created to assist the Americans. In 1946 an 11-nation tribunal convened in Tokyo to try a number of Japanese wartime leaders for war crimes . American occupation policy aimed at destroying the social, political, and economic conditions that had made Japan an aggressor nation, and transforming Japan into a peaceful democratic nation that would never again threaten its neighbors or world peace. Under the guidance of U.S. general Douglas MacArthur , the Japanese were subjected to the most sweeping program of reform they had experienced since the Meiji Restoration. Political democratization centered on a revised constitution. The new constitution stripped the emperor of the enormous powers granted to him by the Meiji constitution, making him instead the symbol of the Japanese nation and restricting his official functions to ceremonial duties. It placed the National Diet, formerly the Imperial Diet, at the center of the political process. The constitution provided for a British-style parliamentary system, with a cabinet elected by and responsible to the House of Representatives. The electorate was expanded to include all adults, including women. The constitution also guaranteed basic civil and political rights. But the most radical article of the new constitution was Article 9, under which Japan renounced war and the use of force to settle international disputes, and pledged not to maintain land, sea, or air forces to that end. Although this “peace constitution” was originally drafted in English by American occupation officials, it was debated and ratified by the Japanese Diet. On the whole, the Japanese population welcomed these changes. The Americans encouraged an atmosphere of free public debate and discussion on nearly every kind of issue, from politics to marriage to women’s rights. After years of wartime censorship and thought control, most Japanese appreciated their new freedom. 2. US-Japan Security Treaty and the fight over its revision Following the general Japanese Peace Treaty, Washington concluded the last of its Pacific defense arrangements — a security pact with Tokyo, signed five hours after the multilateral peace convention, on September 8. The action was stated to be necessary because Japan, in the language of the security pact, " will not have effective means to exercise its inherent right of self- defense because it has been disarmed". Exercising Japan's peace treaty right to make defensive arrangements, Japan desired the United States to maintain "armed forces of its own in and about Japan so as to deter attack upon Japan." Article I provided for U.S. forces in Japan, both for its defense of the Far East and for the possible suppression of internal disturbances "caused through
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This note was uploaded on 10/13/2008 for the course EASL 100G taught by Professor Rosen during the Fall '08 term at USC.

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