J4952 Exam 1 Notes - CHAPTER4 o ,findings,implications...

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CHAPTER 4 CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD RESEARCH AND REPORT WRITING o Clarity and Conciseness Report must clearly communicate the project’s methodology, findings, implications and recommendations in a way that is immediately understandable by the report’s target audience Clarity: permits the audience to focus on what has been discovered and the implications of these discoveries Conciseness: in reporting saves the audience time and energy Eliminate unnecessary words Use common words and simple phrasing Minimize the use of technical jargon Avoid run-on sentences Use active versus passive voice o Completeness Provides details at a sufficient depth and understandability o Correctness Three aspects: Information content Grammar Spelling o Coherence Smooth transitions between thoughts Related pieces of info are grouped and presented together Topics are logically arranged and follow intuitively A clear, explicit statement of the findings serves as the basis for direct conclusions, implications, and recommendations PREPARING AND USING TABLES AND CHARTS Numeric Tables Table identified by number Descriptive title at top Columns clearly labeled Number of respondents in each group is shown Numbers rounded to reasonable level Decimal points are aligned Columns add to the appropriate total Bar Charts Pie Charts Line Charts Don’t use multiple line graphs o Using tables and charts effectively Make sure the table/chart is an improvement over the narrative, if not its probably not necessary
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Keep tables/graphs simple Be consistent with charts/graphs for same material type Use tables and charts to present data, narrative to interpret the data THE WRITTEN RESEARCH REPORT o Reports contain: Title page Table of contents Executive summary Study background and purpose: why the study was done and how the information is to be used Methodology: how the info was collected Main findings: what was learned Conclusions (with any appropriate limitations) and recommendations: a summary of learning and a point of view regarding what should be done now that the research is complete Background Description of methodology Findings Conclusions and limitations Recommendations and next steps Appendices o ORAL RESEARCH REPORT CHAPTER 5: SECONDARY RESEARCH Secondary Research O SECONDARY INFORMATION VS SECONDARY SOURCES Primary and Secondary Information: refers to the organization initially responsible for the research and the circumstances under which the research was initially conducted Secondary research: info that has been collected and analyzed by others, usually for a different purpose that the researchers current, specific informational need o Example: the US Census is primary research, but secondary information when used by other parties Primary research
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