mengen - Mendelian Genetics: The Inheritance of Traits...

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Mendelian Genetics: The Inheritance of Traits 1 Biological Sciences 102 – Animal Biology – Notes & Vocabulary 1 genetics = the science of heredity. wild type = the phenotype most commonly found in nature. The natural appearance and behavior of an organism. Gregor Mendel = an Augustinian monk who is credited with discovering the fundamental principles of genetics by breeding garden peas. Mendel lived and worked in an abbey in Brunn, Austria in the 1860's. Mendel's research was both experimentally and mathematically rigorous and his work allowed him to develop rules for how one organism passes its traits to its offspring. self-fertilization = the fusion of sperm and egg derived from the same individual. Many flowering plants are capable of self-fertilizing because their flowers contain both male (sperm or pollen producing) and female (egg producing) parts. cross-fertilization = the fusion of sperm and egg derived from two different individuals. The mating of one individual organism to another. true-breeding variety = organisms for which sexual reproduction produces offspring with inherited traits identical to those of the parents. For instance, roses that are yellow are a true breeding variety because if you cross (mate) a yellow rose with a yellow rose you will always get yellow roses as offspring. hybrid = the offspring of parents of two different species or of two different varieties of one species. The offspring of two parents that differ in one or more inherited traits or an individual that is heterozygous for one or more pair of genes. A mule is a hybrid animal whose parents were a male donkey and a female horse. hybridization (or cross) = the cross-fertilization of two different varieties of an organism or of two different species; also called a cross. P generation = the parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance; P stands for parental. Fl generation = the offspring of two parental (P generation) individuals; Fl stands for first filial. (filial means relating to offspring) F2 generation = the offspring of two first filial (Fl generation) individuals; F2 stands for second filial. monohybrid cross = an experimental mating of individuals in which the inheritance of a single characteristic (trait) is tracked. dihybrid cross = an experimental mating of individuals in which the inheritance of two characterisitics (traits) is tracked. allele
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mengen - Mendelian Genetics: The Inheritance of Traits...

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