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Methods - Midterm #1 study guide

Methods - Midterm #1 study guide - Research Methods Midterm...

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Research Methods Midterm Review Chapters 1-7, 9 Chapter 1: How do we know what we know? The history of knowledge, truth, and the rise of science What are the basic steps of conducting a research process? see ch. 4 What is generalizability? a scientific goal, must be able to take findings from your research and conclude that it applies it to the larger population of the sample of people studied Qualitative vs. quantitative research : 2 different types of research methods -distinction between numerical and nonnumerical data -quantitative- focus on statistics -surveys; analyzing data -predominant form of research methodology -objective; more removed -qualitative- describes qualities or categories -more personal, but problem of how to apply data across the board -more investigative -draws out emotion can lead to bias Replication : repeating a studying and checking to see whether the same results are produced each time -safeguard against overgeneralization -further test- study may be repeated again under slightly varied conditions Theory – and the role of theory applied to research : scientific theory deals w/ logical aspect of science whereas data collection deals w/ observational aspect -theory: a systematic explanation for the observations that related to a particular aspect of life
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-systematic sets of interrelated statements intended to explain -ex: juvenile delinquency -explains some relationship -social theory has to do w/ what is , not w/ what should be -grounded on axioms or postulates- fundamental assertions, taken to be true propositions- specific conclusions, derived from axiomatic groundwork, about the relationships among concepts -one of 3 major aspects of social science… others are: -research methods- systematic way to observe; data collection -statistics- compare what has been observed; data analysis -describe the relationships we might logically expect between variables -3 functions of a theory: 1) prevent our being taken in by flukes; if we know what happened, we can anticipate whether or not it will work in the future 2) make sense of observed patterns in a way that can suggest other possibilities 3) shape and direct research efforts, pointing toward likely discoveries Variable : logical groupings of attributes -a special kind of concept (see below) Attributes : characteristics of people or things -ex: variable- gender; attributes- male or female -ex: variable- occupation; attributes- lawyer, plumber, doctor, etc. Independent and dependent variables : -independent: presumed to caused or determine a dependent variable -not problematical in analysis because taken as simply given -dependent: a variable assumed to depend on or be caused by another (the IV) -ex: independent variable- education; dependent variable- prejudice -however much one is education will determine the extent of their prejudice
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Chapter 2: Doing research and research paradigms What is a concept? basic building blocks of theory; abstract elements representing the classes of phenomena w/in the field of study -theories explain observations by means of concepts
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