midterm study guide

midterm study guide - EALC 110g / East Asian Humanities:...

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EALC 110g / East Asian Humanities: The Great Tradition Midterm; Spring 2008 4-5 essay questions – choose two. Bring a bluebook. Review 4 areas of inquiry: Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism, and Shintoism. Students are expected to write organized short essays that focus more upon philosophical thoughts and ideas and their significances rather than historical details, names of people and places, and dates. It would be a nice idea to compare and contrast key thinkers and philosophies when you prepare for the exam, and try to be able to use some concrete examples and texts from your readings. (You do not have to memorize them, but should know them roughly in order to refer to them during the exam.) Two dynasties that unify China: - Shang – 1751 – 1112 B.C. -Di – almighty God figure specific to this dynasty -supernatural God that can cause natural disasters -oracle bones – ritual instrument that king used to predict the future - Zhou – 1111 – 249 B.C. -starting point of Chinese Humanisim -human beings have control over the world, not the supernatural -peoples’ attitudes toward spiritual beings – mediated relationship; previously as much more direct -greater emphasis on human individuals -humans began to look for answers to their problems on their own rather than looking to Gods -status of ritual – changed as well -flourishing of culture – poetry, literature, music, art, etc.
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Confucianism : Ancient Chinese Humanism - Pre-Confucianism -Chinese attitudes before Confucianism Pre-Confucian thought -Classic of Documents - Mandate of Heaven : rights and obligations of rulers -what earns heaven’s favors, what can remove it -what does virtue entail in this idea? -strong current of demand by heaven -readiness of heaven to punish if demands are not met -Relation between spirits and humans -relative importance of the two different worlds -first hint of Chinese Humanism -Role of ruler – to provide prosperity among the people -What role do spirits play? Spirits need sponsors in human world in order to play viable role -if people are in good situations, they can support spirits spirits then bless the state - Prayer of the Duke of Zhou – take his own life instead of his brother -heaven’s vengeance for neglecting Duke of Zhou (honorable uncle) -heaven is always an observing force -ready to punish or reward -punishment – terrible storm that brings on famine -ideal conception of a ruler: -Canon: sacred text -of Yao and Shun
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-considered model rulers -both searched for most virtuous ruler -passed over their own sons -ideal rulers – mild, calm, considerate, loving, unites all family relationships -has harmony w/ feudal lords -does not wield a sword, charms people, attract others w/ benevolent decency - Confucius – 551 to 479 B.C. -name comes from “kong” and “fuzi”, w/ fuzi meaning master
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midterm study guide - EALC 110g / East Asian Humanities:...

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