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origins of humanity - midterm 1 study guide

origins of humanity - midterm 1 study guide - Origins of...

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Origins of Humanity Midterm #1 Study Guide Chapter 1: What is Biological Anthropology? - biological anthropology- the study of humans as biological organisms, considered in an evolutionary framework; sometimes called physical anthropology -the scientific study of humankind -idea of evolution as the frequency of a particular trait and the genes that control it can change from one generation to the next - primate - member of the mammalian order Primates, defined by a suite of anatomical and behavioral traits -includes prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans -humans are primates; also the products of millions of years of evolution by natural selection - evolution - a change in the frequency of a gene or trait in a population over multiple generations - hominid - a member of the primate family Hominidae, distinguished by bipedal posture and, in more recently evolved species, large brain -apelike primate that walks on two legs - adaptation - a trait that increases the reproductive success of an organism, produced by natural selection -a long process that humans, as well as all other biological species, are a product of Paleoanthropology - the study of the fossil record for humankind; the study of the fossil record of ancestral humans and their primate kin -fossilized remains- the most direct physical evidence of human ancestry -includes study of fossil record of the other primates- apes, monkeys, prosimians -paleoanthropological research begins in the field; much of scholarly work takes place in museums and university labs Skeletal Biology and Human Osteology - - osteology - the study of the skeleton -osteologists must have skills of identification and a keen spatial sense - anthropometrists - made detailed measurements of the human body in all its forms - skeletal biology - the study of the skeleton but a skeletal biologist must also know the patterns and processes of human growth, physiology, development Paleopathology - the study of diseases in ancestral human populations -also work w/ archaeologists excavating ancient humans to study the effects of trauma, epidemics, nutritional deficiencies, and infectious diseases Forensic Anthropology - the study of human remains applied to a legal context
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-the study of the identification of skeletal remains and of the means by which the individual died Primatology - the study of the nonhuman primates and their anatomy, genetics, behavior, and ecology -best known through work of Jane Goodall and Dian Fossey. Human Biology - subfield of biological anthropology dealing with human growth and development, adaptation to environmental extremes, and human genetics -some human biologists work in area of human adaptation - learning how people adjust physiologically to the extremes of Earth’s physical environments -others work as nutritional anthropologists - study the interrelationship of diet, culture, and evolution -study of human variation deals w/ the many ways in which people differ in anatomy throughout the world -biological anthropologists are interested in human variation- anatomical and genetic -
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