Unformatted text preview: REPUBLIC OF KENYA MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION POLICY AND STRATEGY March, 2008 Vision A nation that harnesses science, technology and innovation to foster global competitiveness for wealth creation, national prosperity and a high quality of life for its people Mission To mainstream application of science, technology and innovation in all sectors and processes of the economy to ensure that Kenyans benefit from acquisition and utilisation of available capacities and capabilities to achieve the objectives of Vision 2030 ii FOREWORD BY THE HON. MINISTER The Kenya Government has been implementing the Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation (ERSWEC) since 2003, as its medium term plan to address development challenges of economic growth and poverty alleviation. In its long term development strategy, outlined in Vision 2030, the Government of Kenya envisages a nation that is globally competitive and prosperous with a high quality of life by the year 2030. In pursuit of the vision, Science, Technology and Innovation will be harnessed to stimulate technological and industrial transformation that will lead to sustained economic growth of 10 per cent per annum, and social well‐being in the next 25 years. The economic recovery gains that have been made in the last few years and the envisaged Vision 2030 goals provide an opportunity for Kenya to position herself strategically on the global scene. The Government therefore, formulated this National Science, Technology and Innovation (ST&I) Policy and Strategy to guide and promote focused integration of ST&I in all sectors of the economy. Specific emphasis will be placed on identified National Priority Growth Sectors that have high potential to harness ST&I in attaining the targeted 10% annual economic growth. In order to realize the above, the Government commits itself to facilitate the identification, acquisition, transfer, diffusion and application of relevant ST&I knowledge in all sectors of the economy. In this regard, the Government seeks the concerted and supportive efforts by all stakeholders in the Kenyan national innovation system to re‐engineer structures, institutions and sectoral policies or successful implementation of the ST&I Policy and Strategy. In conclusion, I call upon all stakeholders to embrace and implement this policy and strategy by making the ST&I to be a component of their institutional and sectoral strategies. Hon. Dr. Noah Wekesa, MP, EGH. Minister for Science and Technology iii STATEMENT BY THE PERMANENT SECRETARY The new National Science, Technology and Innovation (ST&I) Policy and Strategy underscores the importance of mainstreaming science, technology and innovation in all sectors of the economy and ensure that Kenyans benefit from acquisition and utilization of available ST&I capacities and capabilities to improve their quality of life. The (ST&I) policy and strategy, therefore, provides a framework for harmonized and coordinated approach to create a robust knowledge‐based economy that is centred on self‐reliance and equitable development. Through this policy and strategy, the Government will harness Kenya’s collective talents and creativity to promote capacity building in ST&I human, financial and infrastructure development and effective networks and linkages for knowledge generation and sharing. Strengthened science, mathematics and language skills will be critical in supporting Kenya’s scientific, engineering and technology base. Equally important will be creating the enabling environment to apply these skills into productive and innovative competencies and opportunities for technological learning particularly within industry and business enterprises. The thrust in the realization of these objectives is outlined in the document in various prioritised programmes and projects within which Kenyans are expected to promote scientific and technological deepening and application in industry, enterprise, community, research and development institutions. Our success in attaining these objectives however has immense human, financial and capital implications and will entail paradigm shifts in the way our sectoral research, science and technology priorities are identified, programmed and managed. In this regard, the policy and strategy has envisaged a robust and invigorated Kenya National Innovation System. In conclusion, I wish to take this opportunity to appreciate the institutions and their staff who participated in one way or the other in the preparation of this policy and strategy document. Prof. Crispus M. Kiamba, CBS, MBS Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Science and Technology iv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Background to the ST&I Policy 1. Macroeconomic Kenya’s economic performance has improved steadily since 2003. This is demonstrated by a steady improvement in the performance of the macroeconomic policy targets based on the reforms implemented since 2003 under the Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation (ERSWEC). The consistency in GDP growth provides an opportunity for wealth creation and increased resources for strategic investment in high growth activities and enhanced global competitiveness. For sustained development to be realized the efficiency gains must be enhanced and more importantly complemented with productivity growth. Science, technology and innovation will play a critical role in ensuring that productivity growth occurs, and that the economy is progressively transformed into knowledge based one. ST&I will be central to the development of the existing economic sectors as well as the creation of new ones with high growth potential. ST&I has been identified as a foundation for Vision 2030, the long term economic plan that is set to guide the economy into a globally competitive and prosperous nation. It is envisaged that the long term plan will: yield an average GDP growth rate of over 10 % per annum; create a just and cohesive society with equitable social development, in a clean and secure environment; and a democratic political system that nurtures issue‐based politics, respects the rule of law, and protects all the rights and freedoms of every individual in society. 2. Social
The economic growth has taken place within an emerging constrained environment in terms of the state of the natural environment, the national demographic profile, the health status as well as significant governance challenges. ST&I will be applied to provide solutions that will enhance natural resource management for public safety, food security, as well as resolving human and animal health conflicts and developing a sustainable tourism industry. Kenya’s demographic profile indicates a high percentage of a young population. As a result the total population is projected to 60 million by the year 2030 from the current 34.3 million. This necessitates investment to provide for the growing population in terms of health, education, infrastructure among others. 3. National Priority Sectors for ST&I Policy Interventions
To address the macroeconomic and social challenges and achieve the transformation to a knowledge based economy, priority sectors in which ST&I will be strategically integrated to create technology platforms for enhanced productivity growth were identified through a consultative process. The national sectors significant to achievement of national growth and development targets are: a) Agriculture, Rural Development; ‐ increasing the value of agricultural products through agro‐business related processes, agro processing, agricultural research with special reference to bio‐technology and drought management, address biotic and abiotic stresses that lead to losses due to pests and diseases. b) Health and Life Sciences ‐ developing the Kenyan health system to international standards c) Trade and Industry ‐ prioritized link between research findings and industry, diversification and upgrading of production capacity of local industries d) Human Resource Development ‐ the supply of adequate and competent human resource necessary for rapid and sustained ST& I development e) Physical Infrastructure ‐ reforming the legal, Institutional and regulatory frameworks to facilitate advancement f) Energy ‐ research and development to be carried for efficient and affordable energy use and conservation practices; research and analysis of waste management and utilization of the same for energy production; g) Environment and Natural Resource Management ‐ forest management, environmental management and biodiversity conservation h) Information Communication Technology (ICT) – Provision of a robust ICT and infrastructure to stimulate and support local ICT industry growth, improved service delivery in both public and private sectors. 4. Kenya’s National Innovation System An effective innovation system is required for a country to harness the potential offered by modern science and technology to its social and economic advantage. This awareness has replaced an earlier belief that heavy investment in scientific and technological research and the purchase of technology from abroad were sufficient to achieve these goals. The national system of innovation in its broadest conception is the means through which Kenya seeks to acquire, exploit and diffuse knowledge for the achievement of individual and collective goals. The accuracy and effectiveness of the national system of innovation will depend on how well knowledge, technologies, products and processes are converted into increased economic growth for improved quality of life. The Government's three key interests will therefore be focused on • ensuring that Kenya has institutions, organizations and policies with legal basis that give effect to the various functions of the national system of innovation, vi • fostering interactions among and within all sectors and actors in the economy and, •
ensuring that there is an agreed set of goals and objectives which are in harmony with vision 2030. 5 Strategic Policy Issues The policy and strategy will be focused on the following four thrusts;
• Institutional re-engineering focusing on filling in the policy formulation and
implementation gaps as well as addressing the implementation weaknesses
inherent in the current KNIS do we have one • Strategic resource mobilization focusing on harnessing the resources needed to
support the mainstreaming of ST&I in the Kenyan economy. • Strategic knowledge and technology governance focusing on the generation and
management of Intellectual Property Rights; technology development, transfer
and diffusion as well as modernization of indigenous resources, practices and
knowledge and. • Cross-cutting issues to address the need for strategic partnerships for enhanced
ST&I linkages and collaboration; ST&I for integrated disaster management and
the application of effective public communication and advocacy for ST&I. These are elaborated through the following twelve strategic objectives,
a) Governance framework for ST&I to support coordinated and partnership-based
application of ST&I, ensure establishment of a national innovation system and
facilitate integration of ST&I into all sectors.
b) Facilitate renewal, upgrading and creation of supportive infrastructure for
science, technology and innovation.
c) Progressively increase the rate of generation of a high quality skilled human
resource at all levels by providing an environment for building a critical mass
of human resource capacity, harnessing and effectively participating in the
application of science, technology and innovation for value addition activities,
solving problems and enhancing human welfare.
d) Encourage and support collaborative, multi-disciplinary scientific research in
universities and other academic, scientific and engineering Institutions and
promote regional and international cooperation and collaboration in science,
technology and innovation specifically targeted towards achieving the goals of
national development and security.
e) Support application of traditional knowledge in the formal and informal sectors
of the economy for enhanced livelihoods and promote the use the full potential vii of science, technology and innovation to protect, preserve, evaluate, update, add
value to and utilize the extensive indigenous resources and traditional
knowledge available in the various Kenyan communities;
f) Ensure that existing Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) regime are strengthened
to maximize incentives for the generation, protection and utilization of
intellectual property by all types of inventors and foster achievement of Kenya’s
national development objectives.
g) Facilitate technological development, transfer and diffusion for the
accomplishment of national strategic development goals by strengthening
mechanisms that support technology development, evaluation, absorption and
upgrading from concept to utilization.
h) Support and take an active role in research and application of ST&I for
forecasting, early warning, prevention and mitigation of emergencies and
natural hazards, particularly, floods, landslides, drought, security threats, acts
of terrorism, epidemics and emerging infections.
i) Public Communication and Advocacy for ST&I including the ethical and moral,
legal, social and economic aspects by facilitating development mechanisms of
communicating ST&I results /findings to increase knowledge and understanding
for adoption and utilization.
j) Support effective and efficient leveraging of reliable and adequate public and
private sector as well as domestic and international funding in support of
Kenya’s national ST&I policy objectives and strategies, including a review of
administrative and financial procedures to permit efficient operation of ST&I
Institutions in Kenya
k) Integrate ST&I at all levels of education and training by promotion of learning
by discovery method, experiential learning, participatory approach and through
interactive environments, promoting attitudes receptive to ST&I among all
education stakeholders and establishing sustainable centres of excellence to
enhance the quality of the product of training at all levels.
l) Development of a comprehensive performance management framework linking
programme outcomes to long term impacts of this ST&I Policy and
strengthening science-based monitoring and reviewing mechanisms viii 6.
The strategies outlined will be implemented in a period of five financial years starting 2008/9 after which a review will be undertaken. (a) Governance Framework
A coherent and focused legal, institutional and regulatory framework will be developed to support the growth, development and utilization of science, technology and innovation through policies review, institutional and leadership re‐engineering in ST&I. To integrate ST&I into all sectors of the economy, the education system will be restructured to promote the advancement and use of ST&I in all productive sectors and strengthen the role of ST&I players in Policy formulation, planning and budgetary processes among other interventions (b) Human Resource Development
To build a critical mass of human resource capacity to effectively harness and apply ST&I for solving problems and enhancing human welfare, efforts will be made to nurture Kenyans from the youngest possible age to pursue careers in ST&I and develop capacities and competencies in technology management. (c) Education And Training
The focus in this case will be to promote experiential learning, innovation and creativity and well coordinated programmes in education, R&D and Training in all aspects of technology management. Teachers, parents, students, and all stakeholders will be sensitised on ST & I and its benefits. Efforts will also be made to cultivate and sustain interest in mathematics, science and technology from Early Childhood to Primary and Secondary Education levels. (d) Research
To promote the generation of knowledge and its application in ST&I, the strategies will involve introducing innovation and creativity as a major function of ST&I in all post secondary education and training institutions and promote research in strategic areas, national sector priorities and key growth areas. (e) ST&I Infrastructure
To strengthen supportive physical infrastructure, including strategic facilities and their maintenance through renewal, upgrading and creation, strategies will involve establishing infrastructure and equipment needs for ST&I to support overall national development objectives and support ST&I intervention in strategic priority areas. ICT infrastructure will also be expanded through nation‐wide development of initiatives for application of information technologies to strategic priority sectors. (f) Linkages, Collaborations And Partnerships
Systems and institutions will be developed and strengthened to foster targeted collaborative, multi‐disciplinary scientific research within and amongst universities ix and other academic, scientific and engineering institutions. Opportunities will also be created to promote close and productive interaction between public and private sector in existing and emerging issues in ST&I. A supportive inter‐institutions network will be established to nurture, develop and diffuse required ST&I attitudes, knowledge and skills. To promote regional and international linkages, collaboration and partnerships in ST&I target programmes will be established that address regional and international linkages, collaboration and partnerships in ST&I as well as mechanisms for networking Policy makers and ST&I experts. (g) Indigenous Resources And Traditional Knowledge
The objective is to exploit the full potential of science, technology and innovation through generation, protection, preservation, evaluation, updating, adding value to, and utilizing the extensive indigenous resources and traditional knowledge, as applicable to national development. This will be accomplished through evaluating and updating of the extensive indigenous resources and traditional knowledge and promoting partnership between the Government, Private sector, NGO’s‐and other Stakeholders. This will enhance utilization of IRTK results for national development, that are Kenyan in origin and character. (h) Generation And Management Of Intellectual Property
To strengthen the existing Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) regime, existing Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) regime will be reviewed to identify, generate, acquire and protect indigenous resources and traditional knowledge. Programmes will also be developed to encourage the generation, protection, use and management of competitive intellectual property from Kenyan ST&I and large scale and rapid commercialization of IPR locally and internationally. (i) Technology Development, Transfer And Diffusion The aim will be to support search, acquisition, development and application of modern and traditional knowledge and the utilization of the ensuing technologies in the formal and informal sectors of the economy. Quality standards and accreditation of testing and calibration laboratories according to international requirements will facilitate Kenyan industry to avoid non tariff barriers in global trade and a strong, supportive and comprehensive policy environment for speedy and effective commercialisation of inventions and innovations for maximum public good, while enhancing national capacity and capabilities for generation and development of globally competitive technologies. New technology‐based firms will also be created through the establishment of science, technology and innovation parks. x (j) Environment and Natural Resources Management
Alternative technologies will be explored to conserve and manage Kenya’s natural resources to harness maximum benefits from environment and natural resources and protect the livelihoods of Kenyans. This will be accomplished through, capacity to acquire...
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