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Neurobiology - Neurobiology Everything psychological is...

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Neurobiology “Everything psychological is simultaneously biological.”
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There is an inextricable link between our mind and behavior with our biology, chemistry and genetics. There is a biological basis to everything we do. To put it simply our nervous system is like a computer. It’s a system built of billions of interconnecting cells called…? Neurons. Our first step is to understand how these neurons talk to one another in order send the hundreds upon thousands of messages throughout our body.
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Our nervous system is made up of several different types of neurons but they all have essentially the same structure and way of working.
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Action Potential: A neural impulse fires when the neuron is stimulated by chemical messages from adjacent neurons. Neural impulses are due to a process of chemical to electricity that involves an exchange of electrically charged ions. These received signals trigger an impulse only if the imbalance between the signals on the outside of the cell and the inside of the cell are just right. This is called the threshold . The neuron’s reaction is an all-or-none response. It will either fire or it won’t. The impulse, called the action potential , is a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon in a chain reaction. The traveling of the action potential down the axon is called conduction . During the resting potential, the fluid interior of the axon carries mostly negatively charged atoms ( ions ) while the fluid outside has mostly positively charged atoms.
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Then, the first bit of the axon is depolarized (the electrical charge of the neuron becomes less negative) due to the presence of certain neurotransmitters at receptor sites on the cell, and the electrical impulse travels down the axon as channels open, admitting ions with a positive charge. When these channels close, others open and positive ions are pumped back out, restoring the neuron to its polarized state.
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An axon can branch off near the end of the axon allowing the signal to be sent to several different neurons.
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