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Chapter 11 Notes

Chapter 11 Notes - Chapter 11 Communication Communication...

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Chapter 11: Communication Communication : the transference and the understanding of meaning I. Functions of Communication A. Serves four major functions in a group or organization 1. Control : acts to control member behavior a) Formal: authority hierarchies, formal guidelines (i.e. reporting to immediate boss, following job description, complying with company policies) b) Informal: teasing or harassing other group members 2. Motivation : clarifies what is to be done, how well group is doing, what can be improved a) i.e. formation of goals, feedback on progress, reinforcement of desired behavior 3. Emotional Expression : provides a release for the emotional expression of feelings and for the fulfillment of social needs 4. Information : facilitates decision-making by transmitting data to identify and evaluate alternative choices II. The Communication Process : the steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transference and understanding of meaning A. See Diagram p. 370, also on Lecture 5 PowerPoint slides B. Key Parts: 1. Sender – initiates message by encoding a thought 2. Encoding – converting thought into symbolic form 3. Message – physical product of the sender’s encoding (speech, writing, gestures) 4. Channel – the medium through which the message travels a) Formal Channel : communication channels established by an organization to transmit messages related to professional activities of members (1) Traditionally follow the authority chain b) Informal Channel : communication channels that are created spontaneously and that emerge as responses to individual choices 5. Receiver – the object to whom the message is directed 6. Decoding – translating the message into a form that can be understood by the receiver 7. Noise – communication barriers that distort the clarity of the message (see VII. Barrier) 8. Feedback – the check on how successful the sender has been in transferring the msg. a) Determines whether understanding has been achieved
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III. Direction of Communication A. Downward – Communication that flows from one level of a group/org. to a lower level 1. Used by group leaders/managers to assign goals, provide job instructions, inform employees of polices and procedures, point out problems, and offer feedback a) i.e. letters advising of company’s sick leave, e-mail from team leader about deadline B. Upward – Communication that flows to a higher level in the group/org 1. Used to provide feedback to higher-ups, inform them of progress, relay current problems, keep management aware of employees’ feelings/attitudes a) i.e. performance reports, suggestion boxes, employee attitude surveys, grievance procedures, informal “gripe” sessions C. Lateral – Communication that takes place among members of the same work group/level 1. Used to save time and facilitate coordination a) Often informally created to short-circuit vertical hierarchy & expedite action 2. Has positive and negative effects IV. Interpersonal Communication A. Oral Communication 1.
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