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Chapter+4+Student+Notes+PHW - Chapter 4: Objectives 4.1....

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05/08/09 Zumdahl Chapter 4 1 Chapter 4: Objectives Chapter 4: Objectives 4.1. Discuss the idea of a chemical solution and the components of a solution. Emphasize that water is the most common solvent in a solution. 4.2. Introduce molarity (M) as a calculation of a way describing the atomic/ molecular composition of a solution. 4.3. Emphasize acid-base, precipitation, and redox reactions as common solution chemistry reactions. 4.4. Include examples of solution stoichiometry calculations that will be emphasized throughout the semester in both lecture and laboratory.
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05/08/09 Zumdahl Chapter 4 2 Water, the Most Common Solvent Water, the Most Common Solvent Hydration or Dissolution: Solution: Two (or more) substances spread out, or disperse, into each other at the level of individual atoms, molecules, or ions. Solvent: Solute(s): In general, the solute and solvent can be any combination of solid ( s ), liquid ( l ), and gaseous ( g ) phases. However, we will be primarily interested in liquid solutions.
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05/08/09 Zumdahl Chapter 4 3 Ionic Compounds in Water Ionic Compounds in Water All ionic compounds are solids ( salts ) in the range of temperature in which water is a liquid. They have rigid lattices in which strong (Coulomb) forces hold the constituent ions in place. The high melting points of ionic compounds indicate that a good deal of energy must be supplied to destroy the lattice and produce a liquid (molten) form in which the ions move more freely. Water is a polar molecule. When water interacts with an ionic compound such as NH 4 NO 3 , the ionic compound dissociates into a positive ion (NH 4 + , a cation ) and a negative ion (NO 3 , an anion ).
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05/08/09 Zumdahl Chapter 4 4 Ionic Compounds in Water Ionic Compounds in Water NH 4 NO 3 ( s ) + H 2 O( l ) NH 4 + ( aq ) + NO 3 ( aq ) Solvation of the ions by water molecules provides the energy gain needed to break apart the crystal lattice.
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05/08/09 Zumdahl Chapter 4 5 Pairs of liquids that mix in any proportion are termed miscible . Liquids that do not mix in any proportion are termed immiscible . Liquids that are partially miscible mix in some proportions but not in others. "Like Dissolves Like" Substances with similar intermolecular attractive forces tend to be soluble in one Another. ▬► Polar liquids tend to be miscible in other polar liquids & non-polar liquids tend to be miscible in other non-polar liquids. Example: Ethanol: CH 3 CH 2 OH n-octane: CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Dissolution of One Liquid in Another Liquid Dissolution of One Liquid in Another Liquid
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Zumdahl Chapter 4 6 Electrolytes and Non-Electrolytes Electrolytes and Non-Electrolytes Mainly ionic compounds such as potassium sulfate (K 2 SO 4 ) and sodium chloride (NaCl) which, as a solute, increase the electrical conductance of water when they dissolve. Do not increase the conductance of water when
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Chapter+4+Student+Notes+PHW - Chapter 4: Objectives 4.1....

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