ISP217-Spring08_Review_Sheet_for_Test_2_ -...

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e2e832a1d0d1540ad84b9e493644206aa35ff6ae.doc 1 ISP 217. Fall 2008 Review sheet for Dr. Peacor’s 6 lectures for test 2. Lecture 9 Water Chemistry I Key Terms Gas Ion Cation Anion Salinity Conductivity Total dissolved solids Hard water Soft water Softened water Nutrient Macronutrients Micronutrients Labile Refractory Mole Reversible LeChatelier’s principle Buffer ANC Weathering (vs erosion) To know What are abundant gasses that are dissolved in water? What are major cations in water? Which is most common in sea water? Which are associated with water hardness? Which is associated with acid rain? Which are important nutrients? What are major anions in water? Which is the most abundant in sea water? Which are associated with buffering water? Which is associated with acid rain? Which are important nutrients? (Note, answers to these last 3 questions are listed in an early slide, but most of the answers are reviewed later in the lectures). Do gasses, cations, and/or anions move between the water and atmosphere? What is the concentration of ions in seawater? In freshwaters? What are the two ways salinity is measured? If conductivity measurments indicate that salinity is twice as high in one lake compared to another, does this mean that TDS measurements would also show that salinity was twice as high? Why or why not? Where do the salts in the oceans come from? Has the salinity in the oceans changed in the last billion years? If so, how? Why hasn’t the salinity in the worlds oceans been increasing if rivers are bringing in salts continuously for the last > billion years? What is “hard” water? “soft” water? What is the difference between soft water, and softened water? What ions are exchanged in a water softener? What are the pros and cons of using a water softener?
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e2e832a1d0d1540ad84b9e493644206aa35ff6ae.doc 2 What is the main difference between macronutrients and micronutrients? Can a nutrient be toxic? What is an example? What types of organic compounds are labile? What type of organic compound is refractory? What is the “fundamental reaction” of acid and bases? What does [H + ] mean? What is a reversible reaction? What is a mole? What is the concentration of H + of pure water? Is [H + ] of an acid higher or lower? Is [H + ] of a base higher or lower? What is the pH of something if you know [H + ]? For example, what is the pH of black coffee for which [H + ] = 1 x 10 -5 M? Does a liguid with a high pH have more or less H + than a liquid with low pH? Is a liquid with a high pH more or less acidic? Slide 28: Which way does the reaction move if a given chemical (A, B, C, D) is increased or decreased? How does adding CO2 to water lower the pH? What is the connection of this to the pH of rain water? Is rainwater more or less acidic than neutral water? Why? (All these questions connected) What is mean by “bicarbonate buffers water”? How does bicarbonate in water change the effect of adding an acid to water? (I.e. what is
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ISP217-Spring08_Review_Sheet_for_Test_2_ -...

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