Taxomonies and Frameworks
A major theorist in the area of critical thinking is Benjamin Bloom. In 1956, Bloom,
with a group of fellow educational psychologists, developed a taxonomy for
understanding and teaching critical thinking. Bloom’s taxonomy is comprised of three
domains as defined below (Distance Learning Resource Network, n.d.).
is composed of knowledge, comprehension,
application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
relates to emotions, attitudes, appreciation, and/or
, relates to physical skills including coordination,
manual dexterity, strength, and speed.
Each domain has been operationalized through the use of verbs and skill levels to
demonstrate competency. Within these three domains, critical thinking typically occurs at
the highest level in each domain.
Bloom: Cognitive Learning Outcomes
Six levels of learning exist in the Cognitive Learning Domain. The six levels of Bloom’s
Taxonomy for Cognitive Learning are:
– the learner defines, describes, enumerates, lists, labels, identifies,
examines, and tabulates. Learning at this level is primarily rote in nature.