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Me: I Wish I had been born 1000 years ago. Friend: Why is that? Me: Just think of all the history that I wouldn't have to learn! Final Review1.Key TermsAgricultural Revolution: new techniques (irrigation, new crops), beginning of enclosures (no more grazing land for sheep n shit) → increased yields & productivity; bc of this, fams moved to cities (more readily available workforce), lower food prices (more $$ to spend on consumer goods) & ability for larger populationEconomic liberalism: laissez-faire; get rid of tariffs, monopolies and trade restrictionsAdam Smith- The Wealth of Nations,idea of comparative advantage (countries should produce goods it has the lowest opportunity cost in)Previous economic system was mercantilism, lots of restrictions on trade, thought accumulating wealth (gold, bullion) was the way to strengthen the countryMercantilism: government control of economy with tariffs and trade restrictions. Tried to increase exports of finished goods while obtaining raw materials from colonies (this is why colonies were important). IT is more of a POLITICAL than economic ideology.Enlightened Despots: Frederick the Great and Catherine the Great; absolute monarchswho pursue legal,social & edu. reforms inspired by the Enlightenment (18th century); modernized political atmosphere→ took away nobility privileges, religious tolerance; justified rule based on resourcefulness to ppl not divine right, HOWEVER did not insittute any reforms that affected social order or their own rule (in reality status quo did not change much)The French Revolution:started bc frustrations of ppl excluded from privileges, taxing nobles (bankrupt Fr.), & illegitimacy of throne (Enlightenment); first time bourgeoisie and laboring class came together against elitesFirst “modern” revolution, resulted in upheaval of old power structure (Nobility-> Bourgeois), in this sense it is more of a “political revolution with social impact,” Sparked by too much deficit spending, Louis XVI wanted to tax nobility but had to call in the estates general, “Is the debt public or private?” from fiscal problem to a political? problemBelow is all just timeline, no profound significance Third Estate formed the National Assembly, took the Tennis Court Oath: would not leave till constitutional reformThree Stages: 1. Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XIV) 2. Revolutionary republic (Robespierre) 3. Bourgeois Republic (Directory + Napoleon)
July 14, 1789:Fall of Bastille (bc grain reaches highest price); Bastille was symbol of royal tyranny & the fall sparked momentum for the revolution; after this, a lot of the French army deserted post and joined revolutionaries in seizing Paris, acted as a tippingpoint for revolutionary victory→ Louis XIV was forced to accept the new ConstitutionGreat Fear Revolt^- attack on the Bastille was not only because of revolutionary fervor, also because peasants feared Louis XIV called in mercenaries to crush rebellion Decrees of August 4, 1789:many revolts all over Paris, so the Assembly made