311C_F08_chapter 2 - You are responsible for reading and...

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You are responsible for reading and understanding aspects covered in prior/current chemistry (first part of chapter 2) as this will not be covered in class but may be present in exams
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Chemical bonds What holds atoms together? (pages 30-45) Some slides adapted from Biological Science by Scott Freeman and Life: the science of biology by Purves et al
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Fig. 2-9 Hydrogen 1 H Lithium 3 Li Beryllium 4 Be Boron 5 B Carbon 6 C Nitrogen 7 N Oxygen 8 O Fluorine 9 F Neon 10 Ne Helium 2 He Atomic number Element symbol Electron- distribution diagram Atomic mass 2 He 4.00 First shell Second shell Third shell Sodium 11 Na Magnesium 12 Mg Aluminum 13 Al Silicon 14 Si Phosphorus 15 P Sulfur 16 S Chlorine 17 Cl Argon 18 Ar
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Table 2-1
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Valence electrons are those in the outermost shell, or valence shell The chemical behavior of an atom is mostly determined by the valence electrons
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Electron Orbitals An orbital is the three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time Each electron shell consists of a specific number of orbitals
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Electron-distribution diagram (a) (b) Separate electron orbitals Neon, with two filled shells (10 electrons) First shell Second shell 1 s orbital 2 s orbital Three 2 p orbitals (c) Superimposed electron orbitals 1 s , 2 s , and 2 p orbitals x y z Fig. 2-10-4
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Valence electrons
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Atom most stable if valence shell is full!
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Chemical Bonds Attractions between atoms in a molecule – each atom has a full outermost shell at least part of the time
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This note was uploaded on 10/15/2008 for the course BIO 311C taught by Professor Satasivian during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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311C_F08_chapter 2 - You are responsible for reading and...

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