311C_F08_chapter 4

311C_F08_chapter 4 - Organic compounds Chapter 4(pages 58...

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Unformatted text preview: Organic compounds Chapter 4 (pages 58 – 66) The bonding versatility of carbon (a) Methane (b) Ethane (c) Ethene (ethylene) Molecular Formula Structural Formula Ball-and-Stick Model Space-Filling Model H H H H H H H H H H H H H H C C C C C CH 4 C 2 H 6 C 2 H 4 Name and Comments Molecular Diversity Arising from Carbon Skeleton Variation Fig. 4-5a (a) Length Ethane Propane Fig. 4-5b (b) Branching Butane 2-Methylpropane (commonly called isobutane) Fig. 4-5c (c) Double bonds 1-Butene 2-Butene Fig. 4-5d (d) Rings Cyclohexane Benzene Hydrocarbons Isomers compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties Fig. 4-7a (a) Structural isomers 2-methyl butane Pentane Structural isomers: have different covalent arrangements of their atoms Fig. 4-7b (b) Geometric isomers cis isomer: The two Xs are on the same side. trans isomer: The two Xs are on opposite sides. Geometric isomers : same covalent arrangements but differ in spatial arrangements Fig. 4-7c (c) Enantiomers L isomer D isomer Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other •...
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311C_F08_chapter 4 - Organic compounds Chapter 4(pages 58...

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