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1FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol ExposureAlicia TeixeiraPsychopathology Cambridge College
2FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME AbstractFetal Alcohol Syndrome has been a worldwide term that has been associated with womenwho drank alcohol while pregnant. FAS is a specific medical term that was created, after years ofstudies and research, it was concluded that there is a wider range of diagnoses that are associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) that do not fit the criteria of FAS. Neurobehavioral Disorder with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure was adopted and included under the umbrella of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. This term is now in the DMS-5 under “conditions for further study” and has a diagnostic code that can be used for services. The terms, history, diagnostics, treatment, prevention, and how it affects the economy will be discussed in regards to FASD and ND-PAE. Key words: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5thedition – DSM-5, Fetal AlcoholSpectrum Disorders – FASD, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – FAS, Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – PFAS, Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder – ARND, Fetal Alcohol Effects – FAE, Static Encephalopathy/Alcohol Expose – SE/AE, Neurobehavioral Disorder with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure – ND-PAE, Prenatal Alcohol Exposure – PAE, Alcohol Related Birth Defects – ARBD, Central Nervous System – CNS.
3FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME Introduction to FAS and ND-PAE.Fetal Alcohol Syndrome affects millions of people around the world. It does not discriminate and goes beyond any social and economic boundaries. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a birth defect that is caused by a woman that consumes alcohol during pregnancy. Exposure to alcohol in the prenatal and postnatal stages can be prevented. There are no known “safe” amounts of alcohol or a “safe time” to drink while pregnant. A recent survey shows that half of the women in the United States of childbearing age reported that they drank alcohol in the last month, while 15% reported binge drinking which is considered 4 or more drinks per occasion (within 2 hours). Once pregnant, most cut down from drinking and/or stopped completely, but 7.6% continued using alcohol and 1.4% reported binge drinking (Williams, 2015). Only recently,studies have been conducted on the effects of alcohol and pregnancy. FSA is not in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5thedition (DSM-5) but it is associated with Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure categorized under “Specified Other Neurodevelopmental Disorder 315.8 (DSM-5, 2013). Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term describing the wide range adverse effects that alcohol has on a fetus. This included Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (PFAS), Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND), Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE), Static Encephalopathy/Alcohol Expose (SE/AE), and Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE) (Attachment and Trauma, 2016).