Running head: ASTHMA AND STEPWISE MANAGEMENT1Asthma and Stepwise ManagementWalden UniversityAdvanced Pharmacology NURS – 6521June 23, 2017
ASTHMA AND STEPWISE MANAGEMENT 2Asthma and Stepwise ManagementAsthma is a pulmonary disorder with inflammatory and bronchospasm mechanisms (Nix,2017, p. 2). Medication can be provided to reduce the incidence of asthmatic attacks or to stop attacks in progress (Nix, 2017, p.2). Asthma is one of the most common chronic conditions and can affect a person of any age, although the disorder is often considered a pediatric disease (Nix, 2017, p. 2). The purpose of this paper is to describe long-term control and quick relief treatment options for asthma patients, as well as the impact these drugs might have on patients, explain the stepwise approach to asthma treatment and management, and explain how stepwise management assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease.Patient Impact and Treatment OptionsAsthma affects more than 300 million people worldwide with more than 4,000 related deaths a year (Sullivan, Hunt, MacSharry, & Murphy, 2016; Nix, 2017). African American women have the highest asthma mortality rate of all ethnic groups, more than 2.5 times higher than Caucasian women (Dougherty & Fahy, 2009; Nix, 2017). In adults, asthma is 35% more common in women than in men, however in children, the disease affects twice as many boys as girls (McPhee & Hammer, 2014; Nix, 2017). Both gender and ethnicity are factors to consider when dealing with asthmatic patients.The central physiologic issue in obstructive respiratory diseases is increased resistance to expiratory airflow as a result of diameter reduction of conducting airways (McPhee & Hammer, 2014; Nix, 2017). The fundamental abnormality in asthma is increased reactivity of airways to certain triggers. Asthma is characterized by bronchospasm causing intense breathlessness, coughing, and gasping for air (McPhee & Hammer, 2014; Nix, 2017). Along with bronchoconstriction, an inflammatory response occurs causing vasodilation, increased capillary
ASTHMA AND STEPWISE MANAGEMENT 3permeability, mucosal edema, and mucus secretion (Huether & McCance, 2017; Nix, 2017). The
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