Sudy_Guide_Exam_3 - Psychology Review 3 Chapter 9...

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Psychology Review 3 Chapter 9: Intelligence Terms: - Intelligence: the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment - Intelligence Quotient: originally defined as mental age(MA) divided by chronological age(CA) multiplied by 100; (IQ = [MA/CA] * 100; an IQ of 100 indicates individual is average for age group. - Mental Age: The level at which a child can solve problems, ex) 8 year old solving average 10 yr old problems would have a mental age of 10 - Stanford-Binet: gold standard for measuring mental aptitude. Contained mostly verbal items, and yielded singe IQ score - Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: the most popular individually administered intelligence tests in the US 1. Working definition of intelligence? The ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment. Cultural conceptions of intelligence may differ markedly. 2. Are there multiple types of intelligence? Yes. Under general intelligence there is Crystallized Intelligence and Fluid Intelligence. (Fig 9.5, pg 319) 3. Concepts related to intelligence…aptitude, achievement? 4. Differences in Galton’s and Binet’s approach to measuring mental abilities? Galton studies of hereditary genius and Binet measures differences in children’s mental skills 5. How IQ is calculated? Based on person’s performance relative to the scores of other people the same age, with score of 100 corresponding to average performance of that age group. 6. Why is mental age no longer used in calculating IQ test? Although the concept works pretty well for children, many of basic skills measured by intelligence tests are acquired by about age 16. 7. Wechsler’s concept of intelligence? He thought that intelligence should be measured as a group of distinct but related verbal and nonverbal abilities. Terms: - Psychometrics: statistical study of psychological tests - Factor Analysis: statistical technique that permits researcher to reduce a large number of measures to a small number of clusters or factors; test scores that are highly correlated with one another - General Intelligence (g factor): general intellectual capacity that underlies more specific intellectual abilities - Specific Intelligence: Intelligence is focused on specific abilities, such as mental skills involved in learning subjects such as math, reading and science. (Figure 9.3, pg 318) - Crystallized Intelligence: ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems
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- Fluid Intelligence: ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations for which personal experience does not provide a solution - Three-Stratum Theory of Cognitive Abilities: establishes three levels of mental skills—general, broad, and narrow arranged in a hierarchical model - Cognitive Process Theories: explore the specific information-processing and cognitive processes that underlie intellectual ability - Robert Sternberg: leading proponent of the cognitive processes approach to
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Sudy_Guide_Exam_3 - Psychology Review 3 Chapter 9...

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