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Exam 1 Study Guide - Ch 1 1 Psychology The scientific study...

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Ch. 1 1. Psychology : The scientific study of behavior and the mind. 2. Goals of Psychology: o To describe how people and other species behave. o To understand the causes of these behaviors. o To predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions. o To influence behavior through the control of its causes. o To apply psychological knowledge a way that enhances human welfare. 3. Applied Research and Basic Research : o Basic research reflects the quest for knowledge for its own sake, while o Applied research is designed to solve a specific, practical problem. In Applied Research, psychologists often use basic scientific knowledge to design, implement, and assess intervention programs. 4. 3 Levels of analysis : o Biological Level (brain processes, genetic influence) o Psychological Level (thoughts, feelings, and motives) o Environmental Level (past and current physical and social environments that we were exposed to). 5. Mind-Body and Nature-Nurture: Is our behavior primarily shaped by nature (our biological endowment) or by nurture (our environment and learning history)? 6. Mind/Body Dualism (Rene Descartes) : The theory that the mind and body are separate and not connected. It is the belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws that govern the body. o Monism (Thomas Hobbes) : holds that mind and body are one and that the mind is not a separate spiritual entity. o British empiricism (John Locke) : held that all ideas and knowledge are gained empirically—that is, through the senses. 7. Wishelm Wundt established the first experimental psychology laboratory. 8. The First 2 Schools of thought: o Structuralism (Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener) o Functionalism ( 9. Psychological Perspectives: o Structuralism: The analysis of the mind in terms of basic elements (Wilhelm Wundt & Edward Titchener, building blocks). Used the method of introspection (“looking within”) to study sensations. o Functionalism: Psychology should study the functions of consciousness rather than its structure (William James & Mary Whiton Calkins from the U.S.). Structuralists would explain how things work, functionalists would ask why it works. Functionalism is present in two modern-day fields: Cognitive psychology, which studies mental processes, and Evolutionary psychology, which emphasizes the adaptiveness of behavior. o Psychoanalysis: The analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological factors (Sigmund Freud). Defense mechanisms: psychological techniques that help us cope with anxiety and the pain of traumatic experiences. Repression: a primary defense mechanism protects us by keeping unacceptable impulses, feelings, and memories in the unconscious depths of the mind. o Behavioral Perspective: focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions.
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Rooted in the philosophical school of British empiricism, which held that all ideas and knowledge are gained through the senses.
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