L1.Introduction - ECE 475/CS 416 Computer Architecture...

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1 ECE 475/CS 416 Computer Architecture - Introduction Edward Suh C omputer S ystems L aboratory [email protected] Today’s Agenda Question 1: What is this course about? What will I learn from it? Question 2: How will the course be run? What do I need to know? ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2008, Suh
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2 ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2008, Suh Title = “Computer Architecture” What is “Computer Architecture”? Old definition (80s)= Today’s architects must do more; implementation hurdles are more challenging than those in instruction set design ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2008, Suh Role of the Computer Architect To design and engineer the various levels of a computer system to maximize “performance” and programmability within limits of technology and cost . Architect must be aware of application characteristics and benchmarks measures of cost and performance technology trends software and hardware interaction
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3 ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2008, Suh “Performance”? Desktop computers Largest market in dollar terms Web servers Amazon.com had $1.35MM revenue / hour (2005) Embedded / mobile computers ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2008, Suh Single-Processor Performance From Hennessy and Patterson, Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach , 4th Edition, 2006
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4 ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2008, Suh Technology “If […] history […] teaches us anything, it is that man, in his quest for knowledge and progress, is determined and cannot be deterred.” John F. Kennedy (1962) Amazing yearly advances ~60% more devices per chip (doubles every 18 months) ~15% faster devices (doubles every 5 years) disks increase ~60% in capacity circuit boards increase ~5% in wire density Faster devices and advances in circuit design improve performance ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2008, Suh Clock Frequency Growth Rate Source: Intel 30% per year
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5 ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2008, Suh Architecture Contribution Part I. Single-Core Processors What kinds of architectural innovations enabled the uni-processor performance improvement over the past 20 years? Same program (binary) Runs 1.58x faster each year!! ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2008, Suh
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6 ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2008, Suh Moore’s Law: 2X transistors / “year” “Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits”, Gordon Moore, Electronics, 1965 # of transistors / cost-effective integrated circuit double every N months (12 N 24) Source UCB EECS 252 notes ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2008, Suh CPUs: Archaic vs. Modern 1982 Intel 80286 12.5 MHz 2 MIPS (peak) Latency 320 ns 134,000 xtors, 47 mm2 16-bit data bus, 68 pins
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