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CommunismEmerging idea began in the late 19th centuryCommunism’s leading advocates are Karl Marx and Friedrich EngelsThey criticised capitalism and liberalism, believing that these ideasonly benefited the bourgeoisie and would cause ultimate destruction at the endCommunists called for the abolition of private property in land which means no land should be owned by individualsProgressive income taxAbolition of inheritance rightsNationalization of banking, transport and communicationCommon planning for industryFree education, which tied to the earlier French revolutionLiberal’s reasons are really benefiting themselvesProletarians shared a common interests across international bordersDemocracy was ineffective and prevent workers from joining.Manchesterwho/when: Friedrich Engels’s The conditions of the working class in England1845odescribed manchester during industrial revolutionwhere: Manchester, England was the center of the industrial revolution (aka Boom Town)what: very dirty, slummy, dangerous high crime, kid gangs on the street, low privacyoindustrial “modern” city sprung up overnight, peasants (women anod children) from the countryside fled here to work, Why:oinfluenced socialists and communists by showing what liberalism has producedrelate to satanic mills?ochanged gender roles because women and children worked, men could not find work (as said in the reading)oliving on low wages “hand to mouth” led to high instability “consumes today with earned yesterday”Karl Marx1818-1883 german born UK residing philosopherwrote the Communist manifestoalong with Friedrich Engels was anti capitalism and believed that it just extended the class gap between the rich and the poor //I thought Prof said he was in awe of capitalism??believed that liberalism did not give what it promised , only to some (the rich)democracy was really a debate between the ideas of the wealthy proposed the idea that everyone is equal (community)Dialectical Materialism1.Reality is made by things rather than ideas- things precede ideas //world shapes ideas rather than the other way round
2.There is no “human nature”- Our nature is created by social relations (environment, aka naturevs nurture)- Society determines the individual (Different than Mill) as Mill believed that society depends on the people//Can someone explain why?3.4.“The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles”- The current age pits bourgeoisie vs. proletariatA mechanism that describes progress, was initially proposed by Hegelto try to understand how we elevate our thinking. Similarly, Marx used it to describe how our thinking is influenced by materialism (natural science).