five - The Exportation of the American Model of...

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Reality or Illusion? A Comparative Trait Study of American And Finnish Entrepreneurs James W. Carland, Western Carolina University Western Carolina University Cullowhee, NC 28723 Phone: 704-227-7401 Fax: 704-227-7414 Home: 704-293-9151 JoAnn C. Carland, Western Carolina University Matti Koiranen, University of Jyvaskyla Abstract This paper develops the key aspects of the entrepreneurial psyche as depicted in the American model of entrepreneurship. The authors empirically compare an American group of entrepreneurs to a Finnish group in terms of traits. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of identified differences for the potential success of the exportation of the American model to other nations attempting to encourage entrepreneurship. Introduction With the crumbling of the centrally planned economies of Eastern Europe has come the cry: ENTREPRENEURSHIP! Virtually everyone seems to be looking toward the resurgence of entrepreneurship to drive a conversion of these economies toward free enterprise and to fuel an increase in standards of living and in the health of the nations (Roman, 1991). A similar attitude toward entrepreneurship seems to exist throughout the world as numerous countries look toward the phenomenon as a savior of stagnating economies (i.e., Kohi & Sood, 1987; Tiffin, 1987; Gupta, 1989; Meredith, 1989; Balkenhol, 1990; Giamartino, 1991; Nelson, 1991). Like the legendary Phoenix rising from its ashes to live again, entrepreneurship is expected to surge from its grave and leap to the defense of crumbling economies around the world. Americans seem to see this international focus as proof of the superiority of the American model of entrepreneurship. Those who are more generous might say that the American view is a result of history. Less generous ones might say that the American view has its roots in innate feelings of superiority. At any rate, increasing numbers of American researchers are traveling the globe to teach entrepreneurship. The American ideology has dominated the conventional world view of entrepreneurship (Peterson, 1988). There is great danger in this view because entrepreneurship occurs differently in other nations (Giamartino, McDougall & Bird, 1993). Entrepreneurship is unique among organizational and economic functions in that it is initiated by an act of human volition (Hofer & Bygrave, 1992). It is this intentionality that distinguishes the entrepreneur (Bird & Jelinek, 1988). If one wishes to understand the entrepreneurial process, one must understand the role of the individual in triggering that process (Carland, Hoy & Carland, 1988). Further, entrepreneurship is Page 1 of 14 The Exportation of the American Model of Entrepreneurship: Reality or Illusion? . .. 5/27/2004
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This note was uploaded on 10/15/2008 for the course IEOR 160 taught by Professor Hochbaum during the Spring '07 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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five - The Exportation of the American Model of...

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