NEW FRONTIERS - NEW FRONTIERS Politics and Social Change in...

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NEW FRONTIERS Politics and Social Change in the 1960s
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The Election of 1960
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Republicans Richard M Nixon – VP under Eisenhower Strong anti-communist stance Democrats John F Kennedy – Mass Senator Moderate – departure from New Dealers Won on first ballot – “New Frontier” Televised debates (4) Kennedy had the advantage
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Main issue – “communist threat” JFK – Roman Catholic; attractive to the young voters Black vote – influenced by Robert Kennedy’s assistance to Martin Luther King Jr. 64% voter participation – highest proportion since 1920 Narrow plurality for JFK
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Election of 1960
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Jacqueline Kennedy brought “culture” to the White House; young children JFK’s advisers Robert Kennedy – Attorney General Robert S. McNamara – Sec. of Defense; Republican; former president Ford Motor Company Dean Rusk – Sec. of State McNamara had more power than Rusk Tended to ignore Lyndon Baines Johnson, Vice President (Texas)
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Foreign Policy Cuba Under Fidel Castro Castro came to power 1959; nationalized U.S. companies Plans of CIA to invade Cuba began during Eisenhower’s administration March, 1960 Bay of Pigs Invasion – April 17, 1961 Flawed plan, but JFK approved it; refused to provide U.S. air cover for Cuban exiles who formed the invasion troops Castro was ready with 200,000 troops; captured 1,189
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Results of Bay of Pigs U.S. government “reclaimed” prisoners by giving Castro drugs, supplies and equipment CIA – “Operation Mongoose” – series of attempts to assassinate Castro Castro turned to the Soviet Union for support; Khrushchev responded with Soviet troops Mid-1962 – Soviets agreed to station a few dozen intermediate ballistic missiles (IRBM) armed with nuclear bombs in Cuba
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Crisis in Berlin Vienna Summit Conference – June, 1961 Khrushchev – pushed Berlin issue; wanted German Democratic Republic (East Germany) formally recognized Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) wanted a united Germany JFK – we will not give up Berlin; prepared for war To stop the flood of East Germans fleeing to the West, the construction of the Berlin Wall started on August 13 Settled the issue for the time being
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Cuban Missile Crisis Republicans – October 10, 1962 – brought forward the evidence of the missiles; CIA U2 spy plane confirmed the missiles in Cuba JFK – furious! What to do? October 22 – established a blockade with 108 ships to check ships going to Cuba Soviet ships came toward the blockade & then stopped U.S. told Cuba we would not invade if missile bases were dismantled
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Results of Missile Crisis Kennedy appeared forceful, in command U.S. will remove missiles from Turkey Communications between U.S. ad Soviet Union improved (no one wanted war) Installation of teletype “hot line”
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This note was uploaded on 10/16/2008 for the course HIST 100 taught by Professor Hist during the Spring '08 term at E. Stroudsburg.

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NEW FRONTIERS - NEW FRONTIERS Politics and Social Change in...

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