chapter 1 cont'd - Chapter 1 Essentials of Geography...

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Chapter 1 Essentials of Geography
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Essentials of Geography Earth’s Four Spheres The Earth as a Sphere Location and Time on Earth Maps, Scales, and Projections Remote Sensing and GIS
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Earth’s Four Spheres Abiotic —non-living (inorganic) systems Biotic —living (organic) systems
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1. Atmosphere Figure 1.8 Earth’s Four Spheres 2. Hydrosphere 3. Lithosphere 4. Biosphere Course: 4 Parts
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The Earth as a Sphere Pythagoras (Greece, 580-500 B.C.) Earth was a sphere Sir Issac Newton (1687) Rotating planets Faster rotational speed at the equator would produce an equatorial bulge Oblate ellipsoid (geoid)
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Earth’s Dimensions Figure 1.9
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Measuring Earth in 247 B.C. Eratosthenes (276-195 B.C.) Noted difference in Sun’s angle 1 stadium = 185 m Figure 1.10 7.2º/360º = 1/50 Distance = 925 km Circumference = 46,250 km ~15% higher than actual!
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Location and Time on Earth Latitude Longitude Great circles Prime Meridian and standard time
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Latitude Figure 1.11 Latitude is the angular distance north or south of the equator (=0°
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This note was uploaded on 10/16/2008 for the course PHYSICAL G 101 taught by Professor F during the Spring '08 term at E. Stroudsburg.

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chapter 1 cont'd - Chapter 1 Essentials of Geography...

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