chapter 4 ppt - Chapter 4 Atmosphere and Surface Energy...

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Chapter 4 Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances
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Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances: Topics Energy Essentials Energy Balance in the Troposphere
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Energy Pathways and Principles Earth’s atmosphere and surface are heated by solar energy Unevenly distributed by latitude and fluctuates seasonally Shortwave solar energy from the Sun Longwave energy from Earth
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Energy Pathways (1) Transmission Passage of energy through atmosphere or water Scattering Gas molecules redirect insolation, changing direction not wavelength The smaller the wavelength, the greater the scattering
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Why is the sky blue? Shortest wavelengths of visible light (blues and violets) scatter the most insolation Dominate the daytime sky (there are more blue λ than violet) Why are sunsets and sunrises orange and red? At sunrise and sunset, oblique rays pass through more of the atmosphere, scatters the shorter wavelengths, leaving behind the oranges and reds to the observer
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Energy Pathways (2) Refraction—Atmosphere slows insolation and shifts its direction—a bending action called refraction (e.g., a rainbow) Figure 4.4
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chapter 4 ppt - Chapter 4 Atmosphere and Surface Energy...

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