chapter 6 ppt - Chapter 6 Atmospheric and Oceanic...

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Chapter 6 Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulations (1) Wind Essentials Driving Forces Within the Atmosphere Land-sea Breezes
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Wind Essentials Normal air pressure 1013.2 mb or 29.92 inches of Hg (Barometer) Horizontal movement of air across the Earth’s surface Produced by differences in air pressure from one location to another Speed and direction Direction of origin (i.e., westerlies) Speed (i.e., breeze, gale, hurricane)
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Driving Forces Within the Atmosphere Gravity Pressure Gradient Force Coriolis Force Friction Force
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Gravity (1) Gravitational force acting on atmosphere is virtually uniform Weight of atmosphere compresses air, density decreases with altitude
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Pressure Gradient Force (2a) Drives air from areas of higher barometric pressure (more dense air) to lower barometric pressure (less dense air) Principle reason is due to the uneven heating of the Earth’s surface Without a pressure gradient force, there would be no wind
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Pressure Gradient Force (2b) Isobar—line of equal barometric pressure High P (more dense) Low P (less dense) Wind acts at right angles to the gradient Figure 6.7
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Pressure Gradient Force (2c) High Pressure air descends, moves outward Low Pressure air rises, moves inward Figure 6.8
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