BIO 1002 Chapter 19 Microbes

BIO 1002 Chapter 19 Microbes - Chapter 19 The Hidden World...

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Chapter 19: The Hidden World of Microbes A. Anthrax is a microbe. Microbes : things that are too small to be seen by the naked eye; you naturally: A. Prokaryotes range in size 0.2-1.0 μ m micrometers all bacteria Denococcus radiodurans : “Super Bacterium” o survive 3000x more radiation than humans o tolerate extreme dehydration, heat, and cold o used to “chew up” toxic waste o Exxon-Valdez oil spill Part of the Bacteria and Archaea Domains 8000 species described, may be 100-1000x that number 1 st organism to appear on Earth, 3.5 billion years ago. 1. Structure : a. Cell wall = semi-ridged, permeable, made of peptidoglycan (carbohydrate with amino acids attached). Gives bacteria shapes. 1) bacilli (spheres), cocci (rods), spirilla (corkscrews) b. Capsules and Slime Layers attach bacteria to surfaces 1) capsule = highly organized, firmly attached to cell wall 2) slime layer = less organized, loosely attached to cell wall c. Pili = hair-like structures on the surface of bacteria which aid in attachment d. Flagella = rotates and aids in movement e. Endospore = protective ‘resting’ structures, bacteria surrounded by durable cell wall. Resistant to extreme conditions 2. Reproduction :
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a. Asexual in the form of binary fission b. Sexual in the form of conjugation using plasmids 3. Energy Sources : a. Autotrophs using photosynthesis or chemosynthesis b. Heterotrophs including symbiotes 4. : a. Gonorrhea, syphilis, Tuberculosis, Lyme disease B. Unicellular eukaryotes range in size 10-100 μ m How big is a μ m or micrometer (micron)? A meter is about a yard, then you divide it into 1,000,000- that is a
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BIO 1002 Chapter 19 Microbes - Chapter 19 The Hidden World...

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